555 circuits by Forrest M Mims

By Forrest M Mims

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As a result an atom can absorb or emit energy in discrete units or quanta. In 1916, Arnold Sommerfeld suggested that the electron orbits can also be elliptical, and at different degrees. Subsequently, the orbital quantum number (l) was introduced, which assumes the circular and elliptical orbits are in a single plane. When atoms are in a magnetic field, however, the orbits may be tipped and can be best represented in a three dimensional spherical space around the nucleus. To account for this magnetic effect, a magnetic quantum number (m) was introduced.

3 Isotopes Dalton assumed that all the atoms of a given element have the same atomic weight or atomic mass. 7 Atomic Structure it was realized that atoms of the same element can vary in weight, but may have the same chemical properties. The word isotope was coined by Frederick Soddy to represent atoms of an element that have different weights but, still can be placed in the same place in the periodic table. An isotope can be stable or unstable (radioactive). Some of the elements in nature such as Na, F, Al, and Bi have no isotopes, while 81 of the elements listed in the periodic table have at least one stable isotope.

It was also realized that when denser, more massive atoms in a metal are used to stop accelerated electrons, x-rays of higher energies can be generated. 3 Auger Electrons In 1911, the British physicist Charles Barkla noticed that each metal produces x-rays of a particular wavelength, depending on the metal (Fig. 9) and called the more penetrating beam K x-rays and the less penetrating beam L x-rays. The wavelength of x-rays decreases (energy increases) as the atomic number of elements increased.

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