A Deep-Sea Telescope for High-Energy Neutrinos - ANTARES

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Autonomous mooring lines to measure the site parameters have been developed and about 20 deployments and recoveries have been successfully performed. 2. Each test setup is incorporated in a mooring line anchored at the sea bed and vertically supported by a buoy. The measuring system, which can be up to 50 m long, is placed around 100 m above the sea bed. A further 30 m of cable and instrumentation sits between the measuring system and the top of the test line. 1: Map of the ANTARES site near Toulon.

These limits 30 must be taken into consideration when optimising the detector design. 1 Angular response for νµ interactions average of neutrino-muon angle (degrees) The angular response of the detector with respect to the incoming neutrino direction is crucial for the identification of point sources of neutrinos. Three factors determine this response: the angle between the neutrino and the muon in the neutrino interaction, the deviation of the muon direction due to multiple scattering and the angular resolution of the detector with respect to the muon.

8: Transmittivity of the Earth as a function of incoming neutrino energy and zenith angle. Like other underground detectors, neutrino telescopes can observe the sky independently of the time of day, the phases of the moon or the weather. Existing underground experiments have usually reached 80% duty cycle after the initial debugging phase. ANTARES aims for even higher values for the off-shore facilities because the access is complicated and time-consuming. 35 36 Chapter 4 R & D programme In order to ensure the success of the deployment of a large-scale detector in an uncontrollable environment such as the deep sea, it is necessary to perform an extensive programme of site evaluation and prototype testing.

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