By David J. Kalupahana
The current paintings has, considering the fact that its unique ebook in 1976, provided an unequaled creation to the philosophical rules and old improvement of Buddhism. Now, representing the fruits of Dr. Kalupahana's thirty years of scholarly study the mirrored image, 'A background of Buddhist Philosophy' builds upon and surpasses that past paintings, offering a totally reconstructed, special research of either early and later Buddhism.
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Additional info for A History of Buddhist Philosophy: Continuity and Discontinuity
14 EARLY B U D D H IS M This perspective may have made a difference to their conception of human behavior. Those who considered the human personality to be a mere lump of material particles maintained that killing a human person is not a matter of serious consequence, for all that is done is that a sword is inserted through that lump of matter. In contrast, the Materialists who believed in the reality of the physical body maintained that its evolution in the form of a body is a natural phenomenon (svabhdva) and that the destruction of that body is an act against nature.
R e r m c p it ic k „ m a n a ctl<>n > lC is internal to the person, whereas biological determinism is external. Action explains free will, for every action is willed. It is free because it is not part of biological determinism. This is the sense in which M ahavira’s statement that “there are things that are determined and things that are not determined” (niyaydniyayarp sarptarp)18 can be understood. The above explanation of human action and biological determinism may have compelled Mahavlra to adopt a non-absolutistic standpoint regarding ordinary human knowledge and understanding.
This inclined the Buddha to maintain that, There are five things that have a twofold result in this life. What five? [Knowledge based on] faith, likes, tradition, reflection on form, and delight in views. . Even if I know something on the basis of best faith, that may be empty, hollow, and confused, while what I do not know on the best faith may be factual, true, and not otherwise. 6 Here the Buddha is emphasizing the idea that a theory accepted on the basis of faith or confidence, likes or preferences, tradition or report, reflection on form or logical consistency, or delighting in the contempla tion of views or obsession with views is not necessarily true.