By Martin Hartley Jones
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Additional info for A practical introduction to electronic circuits [...] XD-US
So, while improvements with applied ﬁelds had been identiﬁed, the physical and functional relationships remained to be identiﬁed. Efforts to understand geometric and power scaling of the MPD were pursued at NASA centers to advance the development of operational thrusters. A study of geometric changes in the thruster conﬁguration for an AF-MPD in a lower power range (20–130 kW) as they relate to acceleration mechanisms through measurement of performance parameters was carried out (Myers, 1995). 18) the dimensions of cathode radius, rc; anode radius, ra; cathode length, Lc; and anode length, La were methodically varied and performance parameters (power, thrust, efﬁciencies) were evaluated.
1970) investigated a lower power lithium propellant device (25 kW) and modest applied ﬁelds; what was exceptional in the experiments were the very high exhaust velocities and efﬁciencies. A proposed model of interactions in the thruster included azimuthal (vq) swirling motion induced by Jr Â Bz (AF); this rotation was assumed to be solid body and was to be completely converted to an axial thrust component. Using this model, the thrust relationship was predicted to be linear with discharge current and applied ﬁeld strength, as: TAF ¼ f ðr; mÞ$ðI$B _ AF Þ: The measured thrust in these experiments did show a linear increase with applied magnetic ﬁeld strength at one current.
The anode has two functions: acting as a positive electrode to create an electric ﬁeld in the channel and allowing passage of neutral gas to the discharge channel. The potential of the anode is required to be on the order of a 100 V to facilitate ionization. A series of equally spaced holes is required to allow the uniform azimuthal distribution of the neutral gas. The neutral gas propellant is typically xenon, based upon ionization energy and atom mass; krypton has also been investigated for high-power Hall thrusters.