By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain
Many nations worldwide block or clear out net content material, denying entry to information—often approximately politics, but in addition when it comes to sexuality, tradition, or religion—that they deem too delicate for traditional voters. entry Denied files and analyzes net filtering practices in over 3 dozen nations, supplying the 1st carefully carried out examine of this accelerating development. web filtering occurs in no less than 40 states around the world together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. similar net content material regulate mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the U.S. and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of worldwide web filtering undertaken via the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman heart for web and Society at Harvard legislation university, the Citizen Lab on the college of Toronto, the Oxford web Institute at Oxford collage, and the college of Cambridge) and counting on paintings by means of neighborhood specialists and an intensive community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, criminal, social, and cultural contexts of web filtering in those states from various views. Chapters speak about the mechanisms and politics of web filtering, the strengths and obstacles of the know-how that powers it, the relevance of overseas legislations, moral issues for firms that offer states with the instruments for blocking off and filtering, and the consequences of net filtering for activist groups that more and more depend on net applied sciences for speaking their missions. studies on web content material rules in 40 assorted nations keep on with, with every one nation profile outlining the categories of content material blocked by way of classification and documenting key findings. Contributors : Ross Anderson, Malcolm Birdling, Ronald Deibert, Robert Faris, Vesselina Haralampieva, Steven Murdoch, Helmi Noman, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Mary Rundle, Nart Villeneuve, Stephanie Wang, and Jonathan Zittrain
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Extra resources for Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering
As the results presented in chapter 1 show, several states—including China, Iran, Myanmar, and Yemen—block access to all URLs containing particular strings of letters (such as ‘‘ass’’), whether such banned terms appear in the domain or in superfluous characters at its end. Those sites’ IP addresses are independently blocked, as blocked domains could otherwise be accessed via this method. Some blocking approaches are cruder still. 17 38 Jonathan Zittrain and John Palfrey This last example demonstrates the dramatic difference between URL-based filtering and content-based filtering.
Each set of tests is performed on different Internet service providers within the country. 4. The Internet filtering tests carried out in Russia in 2006 were limited to ISPs accessible in Moscow. These results therefore do not necessarily reflect the situation in other areas of the country. 5. org/). 6. The strategies for addressing alleged intellectual property rights violations can vary significantly from standard Internet filtering. Rather than blocking Web sites that continue to be available from other locations, efforts generally focus on taking down the content from the Web sites that have posted the material and on removing the sites from the results of search engines.
Establishing the intention of blocking is never as clear. The blocking of this wide array of blogs could be the result of a lack of technical sophistication or a desire to simultaneously silence the entire collection of blogs hosted on the site. The other prominent target of filtering is political parties, followed by NGOs focused on a particular region or country, and Web sites run by individuals. The implications of targeting civic groups and individual blogs are addressed by Deibert and Rohozinski in chapter 6 of this volume.