America’s Viceroys: The Military and U.S. Foreign Policy by D. Reveron

By D. Reveron

With the U.S. militia enjoying an ever expanding crucial position in American overseas coverage, unusually little realization has been paid to the position of local Commanders-in-Chief (CINCs) in either enforcing and shaping kin with numerous international locations. Wielding great energy and enormous assets, either army and monetary, those officials also are diplomats, advisors, and intermediaries among different international locations and the Washington coverage strategy. This ebook explores the function those army commanders play in modern U.S. international coverage.

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Controlling the Military General Dwight Eisenhower, who pioneered the practice of unified command as supreme allied commander in Europe during World War II, did not entirely approve of the command arrangements established by the National Security Act of 1947 and the Key West Agreement. ”48 During his successful presidential campaign in 1952, Eisenhower promised to review DOD organization. The new president was convinced that he must reduce the power of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and civilian heads of each service.

One institutional change, however, was implemented by executive order. In February 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Joint Chiefs of Staff ( JCS). The initial composition of the JCS mirrored the British arrangement, largely because the JCS was tasked with coordinating the war effort in Europe with their allied counterparts. However, the organization operated by consensus, and agreement among the three service chiefs was difficult to reach. Hampered by interservice rivalry, the lack of consensus undermined the American war effort.

63 Even though many of the policy provisions existed prior to 1986, the legislation was received with great controversy and suspicion in defense circles. The Service chiefs and the secretary of Defense initially opposed the proposed changes. They objected to empowering the chairman’s office by increasing his authority. The chairman could now bypass the secretary of Defense to advise the president on military matters. ”64 They objected to Title 4 that established a distinct cadre of officers who were to specialize in joint assignments.

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