By Michiel Steyaert (Editor), Arthur H.M. van Roermund (Editor), Johan H. Huijsing (Editor)
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Extra resources for Analog Circuit Design: Structured Mixed-Mode Design, Multi-Bit Sigma-Delta Converters, Short Range RF Circuits
The second-order sections are then directly implemented with biquads. Rules of thumb for section ordering, pole-zero pair grouping and gain assignment can be found in literature . The main concern is not to apply in-band attenuation in one section and amplification in a subsequent section. 28 In Figure 5 an example of a gm-C biquad section is shown. Also the realized transfer function and the state-space representation is shown. Given the transfer function to be realized, the values can now be determined.
This type of feedback has an influence on the noise figure and on the power dissipation although the elements do not generate noise themselves or dissipate power. Resistive feedback is the most commonly used type of feedback in wide-band amplifiers. Due to their thermal noise generation and power dissipation the resistors will contribute to an increase of the noise figure and the power dissipation. These influences can, however, be much less than those of shunt or series resistors at the input or output port of the amplifier.
Since there is no power dissipation in the feedback elements, any influence on the power dissipation is also absent. Single loop feedback configurations using short and open circuits in their feedback network are known as the voltage follower and the current follower with unity voltage and current gain, respectively. They are shown in figure 2. The use of transformers for a limited frequency range may be a possibility on silicon. However the insertion loss will normally be unacceptably high so that no advantage over resistive feedback 53 would be obtained.