By Maaike Groot
This quantity explores the function of animals within the rural groups of Civitas Batavorum within the first to 3rd centuries advert. Large-scale excavations of 2 settlements and a cremation cemetery in Tiel-Passewaaij have yielded an animal bone assemblage of round 30,000 fragments, and a important reference catalog of the designated animal deposits is integrated right here. the writer additionally investigates using animals in funerary and different rituals, in addition to the function of cattle within the neighborhood financial system and within the creation of surplus items for the Roman market.
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Additional info for Animals in Ritual and Economy in a Roman Frontier Community: Excavations in Tiel-Passewaaij (Amsterdam University Press - Amsterdam Archaeological Studies)
17 Van Driel-Murray 2003, 205. 1 Fig. 13. Geological components of a riverine landscape. After Vossen 2007. The geology of the Eastern Dutch River Area has had another important influence on the animal bones from Tiel-Passewaaij: it is because of the excellent preservation of the clay soils that a large assemblage of animal bones was found, and in such a good condition that detailed analysis was possible. 1 . 2 . 3 research area Results from the study of the animal bones from Tiel-Passewaaij will be placed in a wider context by comparison with animal bone studies based on other excavations in the eastern part of the Dutch River Area.
They were also consumption sites, because part if not most of what was produced was consumed locally. The surplus may have formed only a small part of the total agricultural production. 1 . 4 . 58 The first half of the 1st century AD was a period during which both this knowledge and money itself spread rapidly through the Dutch River Area. Batavian soldiers and ex-soldiers played a crucial role in this process. At this time, Batavian troops were stationed in Germania Inferior. During visits to their home villages, part of their army wages would be left behind.
To determine sex, use was made of biological differences between males and females in some species. In complete skeletons of dogs, the presence of the baculum or penis bone is used to identify males. The absence of the baculum cannot be used for identification of females, as it could have been missed during the excavation. In horses, males have canine teeth which are missing or very small in females. In pigs, canines of males are much larger than those of females. In cattle and sheep, the shape of the pubic bone and the shape and size of horn cores was used to determine sex.