Basic Principles in Applied Catalysis by Friedrich Schmidt (auth.), Professor Dr. Manfred Baerns

By Friedrich Schmidt (auth.), Professor Dr. Manfred Baerns (eds.)

Written through a group of the world over famous specialists, this booklet addresses crucial different types of catalytic reactions and catalysts as utilized in business perform. either utilized elements and the basic clinical ideas are defined. the most subject matters may be summarized as follows: heterogeneous, homogeneous and biocatalysis, catalyst education and characterization, catalytic response engineering and kinetics, catalyst deactivation and business perspective.

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1 Characteristics of Catalysts Based on MoNlNb Mixed Oxides Catalysts made of MoN INb mixed oxides possess unique reactivity properties, and are able to activate and oxidize paraffins at low temperature, with performances which are rather unique, starting from substrates having very different reactivity properties, like ethane and propane. Catalysts essentially based on MoNlNb/O (also containing other elements to improve the specific performance in some reactions) have been claimed for the oxidation of ethane and propane, and for ammoxidation of propane.

In the system developed by Rhodia, instead, the main component is Sn02 (cassiterite, having the rutile structure), inactive in the reaction of ammoxidation, which acts as the carrier for the active components: i) V/Sb/O and ii) SbOx. Tin oxide is also able to disperse these components, through the formation of a solid solution of V and Sb in the tin oxide lattice, thus yielding a multifunctional catalyst where the two active compounds are in intimate contact and can effectively cooperate in the reaction [120, 168, 169].

This justifies the tendency of the VISb/O system to give such large deviations from the stoichiometry, at least under conditions which are not the most stable from the thermodynamic point of view (for this reason, the temperature of treatment may considerably affect the nature of these non-stoichiometric solids). 0. 0), to 0 (V u SboP4' with full occupancy of the cation sites, and with vanadium as Vo/+Vot) [177]. In practice, vacant positions in Vo9SboP4 are progressively occupied by V ions, thus increasing the V/Sb ratio, with also a corresponding increase in the V3+N4+ ratio.

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