By Paul F. Agris
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Extra resources for Biomolecular Structure and Function
Academic Press, New York, Vol. 32. Biophys. Chem. Science 163, 24 IAN C. P. SMITH et al. 38. , and Derbyshire, W. (1971). Letters 39. FEBS 16, 102. N. (1969). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. ) 63, 104. 40. I. P. (1976). Chem. Phys. J. Letters 42, 390. Bacteriology 98, 1021. 41. Merdinger, E. (1969). 42. E. G. (1973). Lipids 43. Phys. 11, 196. , and Howarth, O. (1977). 44. Chem. Chem. Phys. Lipids Sears, B. (1975). 18, 267. J. Membrane Biol 20, 59. Biochemistry 16, 45. 45. Seelig. A. and Seelig, J. (1977).
Turning to spectroscopic labeling techniques, there are two general strategies in approaching the problem of lipid specificity. One is to hold the lipid composition constant and introduce labeled lipids (reporter molecules) that differ in polar head groups. Alternatively, the reporter group can be held constant and the unlabeled lipid can be varied. The competition of the unlabeled lipids is then judged from the behavior of the labeled molecules. A preliminary example of the first approach is shown in Fig.
That the protein exhibits a limited preference for the negatively charged lipid. An obvious extension of this approach is to use spin labeled phospholipids with different natural head groups, and keep the competing unlabeled phospholipid constant. STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MEMBRANES 49 This second strategy necessarily involves replacing the natural lipids with defined lipids. There are two general types of reconstitution used in the literature, depending on the purpose of the experiments. For activity and ion transport studies, it is usually necessary to have a very high lipid to protein ratio (evidently to avoid leaky vesicles).