By By (author) Rex Miller By (author) Mark R. Miller
A winning construction or home improvement task calls for not just a plan, but additionally the ability to interpret it and an figuring out of the math in the back of it. This paintings enables you to discover the different sorts of wooden items and examine what's top in your objective. It additionally is helping you discover ways to learn architectural drawings and paintings with machine layout.
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Extra info for Carpenter's and builder's math, plans, specifications
However, as a general average, at the fiber-saturation point, most woods contain from 23 to 30 percent water as compared with the oven-dry weight of the wood. When air dry, most woods contain from 12 to 15 percent moisture. As the wood dries from the green state (which is that of the freshly cut tree) to the fiber-saturation point, except in a few species, there is no change other than that of weight. It has already been pointed out that as the moisture dries out of the cell walls, in addition to the decrease in weight, shrinkage results in a definite decrease in size (see Figure 2-7).
Wood screws are often used in carpentry because of their advantage over nails in strength. They are used in installing various types of building hardware because of their great resistance to pulling out and because they are more or less readily removed in case of repairs or alterations. There are generally three standard types of screw heads: the flat countersunk head, the round head, and the oval head. All of these can be obtained in crossed slot, single straight slot, or Phillips slot. Lag screws or lag bolts are heavy-duty wood screws that are provided with a square or hexagonal head so that they are installed with a wrench.
Lag screws are large, heavy screws used where great strength is required (such as for heavy timber work). Table 1-9 gives the dimensions of ordinary lag screws. How to Put in Lag Screws First, bore a hole slightly larger than the diameter of the shank to a depth that is equal to the length that the shank will penetrate (see Figure 1-23). Then bore a second hole at the bottom of the first hole, equal to the root diameter of the threaded shank and to a depth of approximately one-half the length of the threaded portion.