Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: Prevention, Diagnosis, by Prof. Luca Bertolini, Prof. Bernhard Elsener, Pietro

– – – – – – – – – ---------- ---------- – – 21–35 6–20 – – T Burned Shale – --------- --------- – – – – 21–35 6–20 W Calcareous Minor additional constituents may be fillers or one or more of the main constituents, if these have not been included as main constituents.

If the strength and density of the converted material are adequate, the durability is good. The stable product has a high resistance against attack by acids. , furnaces). References 19 Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cements (CSA) The use of raw materials such as limestone, bauxite, and calcium sulfate leads to 20–30% reduced CO2 emission compared to equivalent ordinary portland cement and to a lower firing temperature of 1250 °C. Further, calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement is easier to grind than portland cement clinker.

50) made with portland and blast furnace slag cements at early age (based on data from [21]). 5): CEM I = portland cement, 30%LI = 30% ground limestone, 30%PZ = 30% natural pozzolana, 30%FA = 30% coal fly ash, 10%SF = 10% silica fume (modified from [22]). 5 Other Types of Cement 15 As far as composition is concerned, five main types of cement can be considered: • CEM I (portland cement), with at least 95% of clinker (by total binder mass), • CEM II (portland-composite cements), with addition of up to 35% of another single constituent, • CEM III (blast furnace cement) with addition of 36–95% blast furnace slag, • CEM IV (pozzolanic cement) with addition of 11–55% pozzolanic materials, • CEM V (composite cement) with simultaneous addition of slag and pozzolana (18–49%).

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