Digital Speech Processing: Speech Coding, Synthesis and by A. Nejat Ince (auth.), A. Nejat Ince (eds.)

By A. Nejat Ince (auth.), A. Nejat Ince (eds.)

After alm ost 3 ratings of years of uncomplicated and utilized study, the sector of speech processing is, at the present, present process a speedy progress when it comes to either functionality and functions and this is often fueHed by means of the advances being made within the components of microelectronics, computation and set of rules design.Speech processing pertains to 3 elements of voice communications: -Speech Coding and transmission that's quite often fascinated about man-to­ guy voice communique. -Speech Synthesis which offers with machine-to-man conversation. -Speech reputation that's concerning man-to-machine verbal exchange. frequent program and use of low-bit price voice codec.>, synthesizers and recognizers that are all speech processing items calls for ideaHy the world over authorized caliber evaluate and overview equipment as weH as speech processing criteria in order that they should be interconnected and used independently in their designers and brands with out expensive interfaces. This booklet provides, in an educational demeanour, either basic and utilized points of the above themes which were ready by means of weH-known experts of their respective parts. The ebook is predicated on lectures which have been backed through AGARD/NATO and added via the authors, in numerous NATO international locations, to audiences consisting more often than not of educational and commercial R&D engineers and physicists as weH as civil and armed forces C3I structures planners and designers.

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The results obtained from user opinion tests, averaged over a large number of users, yield an indication of the overall speech quality of the speech coder under test. 5 Measurement An alternative method for quantifying the "goodness" of a speech coder, other than assessing the rather ill-defined concept of speech quality is to measure its electrical characteristics. Important characteristics which could be measured include: - attenuation frequency distortion - signal-to-noise ratio - dynamic range - idle channel noise - quantization noise - susceptibility to transmission errors - harmonie distortion - group delay distortion In order to combine the results of such measurements into a single entity indicating the "goodness" of the coder, an "articulation index" (AI) could be computed [32].

The experience shows however that the service features required by the military in time, become requirements also for the civilian systems. This is certainly true as far as the following network features and trends [13] are concerned: i) Voice coding at sub-rates of 64 kb/s and as low as 16 kb/s and even lower, for long connections and mobile applications. ii) Speech synthesis and speech recognition using subrates of 64 kb/s, for instance for voice message services and recorded announcements. iii) Digital Circuit Multiplication (DCM) for making more efficient use of the transmission media.

The production of speech is first described, including a survey of the categories into which speech sounds are grouped. This is followed by an account of some properties of human perception of sounds in general and of speech in particular. Speech is then compared with other signals. It is argued that it is more complex than artificial message bearing signals, and that unlike such signals speech contains no easily identified context-independent units that can be used in bottom-up decoding. Words and phonemes are exarnined, and phonemes are shown to have no simple manifestation in the acoustic signal.

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