By National Academy of Engineering
This source provides an extraordinary discussion among engineers and environmental scientists as they think about the numerous technical in addition to social and felony demanding situations of ecologically delicate engineering. It seems on the ideas of scale, resilience, and chaos as they observe to the issues the place the ecological lifestyles aid procedure of nature interacts with the technological existence aid process created by means of mankind.
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Extra resources for Engineering Within Ecological Constraints
D. Haskell, eds. : Island Press. Hayward, S. , V. H. Gomez, and W. Sterrer. 1982. Bermuda's Delicate Balance. Hamilton: Bermuda National Trust. Holling, C. S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4:1-24. Hughes, J. 1975. Ecology in Ancient Civilizations. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Kauffman, S. A. 1991. Origins of Order: Self Organization and Selection in Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. Kauffman, S. A. 1993.
Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. , 1986; Waide and Webster, 1976). On the one hand, that makes the mathematics more tractable, and on the other, it accommodates the engineer's goal to develop optimal designs. There is an implicit assumption of global stability, that is, that only one equilibrium steady state exists, or, if other operating states exist, they should be avoided (Figure 1) by applying safeguards.
The latter, productive but drought-sensitive grasses, have a competitive edge between bouts of grazing so long as drought does not occur. But, because of pressure from pulses of intense grazing, that competitive edge for a time shifts to the drought-resistant group of species. As a result of these shifts in competitive advantage, a diversity of grass species serves a set of interrelated functions— productivity on the one hand and drought protection on the other. When such grasslands are converted to cattle ranching, however, the cattle have been typically stocked at a sustained, moderate level, so that grazing shifts from the natural pattern of intense pulses separated by periods of recovery, to a more modest but persistent impact.