By Máiréad Nic Craith
Do political obstacles influence on recommendations of language? How major is language for citizenship in modern Europe? Can disputed languages collect complete prestige? may still non-European languages obtain acceptance from the ecu? those are among the questions explored during this new research of professional, local and disputed languages in an ever-changing ecu context. extensive coverage concerns and the functionality of the variety of tools of coverage at neighborhood, nationwide and ecu degrees are illustrated on the subject of case experiences throughout Europe.
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Additional resources for Europe and the Politics of Language: Citizens, Migrants and Outsiders
The rules of procedure of the European Court of Justice of 7 March 1953 state that its official languages are French, German, Italian and Dutch, which constitute the primary languages of the initial six 40 European Elites: Official Languages in the EU 41 member states. Even at this early stage, however, there were some intimations that the four languages were hardly equal. ‘Listing the languages not alphabetically, but naming French first, suggests that French was assumed to have a greater role to play’ (Phillipson 2003: 54).
And a crown of twelve stars on her head’ (Anonymous 2004a: 52). The role of Christianity within the EU was an important focus of debate throughout the process of EU enlargement and the development of a constitution for Europe. During the 2-year long effort to draft a constitution, one of the more controversial issues that emerged was whether the text should contain a reference to Europe’s Christian roots. The debate that followed such questions was evidence of tensions between religious and secular opinions on European values.
Yet the importance of the Serbo-Croat language which was spoken by some three-quarters of the population was always considered central to the cohesion of the state and in Cold War Europe of the 1950s there were some attempts to reconcile the symbolic significance of the Croatian and Serbian linguistic traditions of the two predominant ethnic groups with the perceived need for a common state standard. In 1954 the Novi Sad Agreement declared that the language was one: ‘the national language of Serbs, Croats and Montenegrins is one language, that is, the literary language which developed from its basis around two main centres, Belgrade and Zagreb, united, with two pronunciations, Statehood, Citizenship and Language 27 ijekavian and ekavian’ (cited in Pupavac 2003: 144).