Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet: by Karen Hellekson, Kristina Busse

By Karen Hellekson, Kristina Busse

Enthusiasts were responding to literary works because the days of Homer's Odyssey and Euripedes' Medea. extra lately, a couple of technology fiction, delusion, media, and online game works have chanced on committed fan followings. the appearance of the web has introduced those teams from rather constrained, face-to-face businesses to simply available international groups, in which fan texts proliferate and are generally learn or even extra generally commented upon. New interactions among readers and writers of fan texts are attainable in those new digital communities.

From Star Trek to Harry Potter, the essays during this quantity discover the area of fan fiction--its reasons, the way it is created, how the fan reviews it. Grouped by way of subject material, essays hide themes similar to style intersection, sexual relationships among characters, personality building via narrative, and the position of the beta reader in on-line groups. The paintings additionally discusses the terminology utilized by creators of fan artifacts and reviews at the results of technological developments on fan groups.

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Other films continued to be made, but only two used sound. " Underground Printer, directed by Thomas Bouchard and photographed by Lewis Jacobs, presented a political satire in "monodance" drama featuring the dancer, John Bovingdon, utilizing speech, sound effects, and stylized movements. Two other silent films were made at this time:Synchronization, by Joseph Schillinger and Lewis Jacobs, with drawings by Mary Ellen Bute, illustrated the principles of rhythm in motion; Olvera Street, by Mike Seibert, was a tense dramatization of the aftermath of a flirtation between two Spanish street vendors.

The problem created by the screen's reducing the dancer to a twodimensional figure was overcome by ingenious use of wide-angle lens, a convex reflecting surface, special lighting effects, slow motion, and multiple exposures. The result is a kind of abstraction, a completely new visual experience especially heightened when two or three colored forms are juxtaposed in multiple exposure. The use of color is striking and unlike color in any other experiment thus far. Although episodic and incomplete, Introspection is original in style.

Today the documentary film is a respected, well-defined category in the film industry alongside the fictional entertainment film. It is time, I think, to introduce the experimental film as a third, legitimate if nonrespected, category, quite distinct from the other two. It has its own philosophy, its own audience, and, I feel, its necessary place in our twentieth-century society. These claims may be more difficult to prove than similar ones for the documentary or the fictional film, but even a partial failure would be a partial success in view of the current confusion about what the experimental film is and what its goals are.

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