Farming for Food and Water Security by Catherine L. Gerrard, L. G. Smith, B. Pearce (auth.), Eric

By Catherine L. Gerrard, L. G. Smith, B. Pearce (auth.), Eric Lichtfouse (eds.)

Sustainable agriculture is a swiftly starting to be box aiming at generating nutrients and effort in a sustainable method for our kids. This self-discipline addresses present matters comparable to weather switch, expanding foodstuff and gasoline costs, hunger, weight problems, water pollutants, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest keep watch over and biodiversity depletion. Novel strategies are proposed according to built-in wisdom from agronomy, soil technology, molecular biology, chemistry, toxicology, ecology, economic system, philosophy and social sciences. As genuine society concerns at the moment are intertwined, sustainable agriculture will carry recommendations to construct a more secure international. This publication sequence analyzes present agricultural matters and proposes replacement suggestions, for that reason supporting all scientists, decision-makers, professors, farmers and politicians wishing to construct secure agriculture, power and meals structures for destiny generations.

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Such a pattern in the decrease of concentrations during the first rainfall following application was sometimes similar to the one observed between a limited and successive number of rainfall events. By using the same protocol, Lafrance et al. (1993–1996) observed that the major losses of these herbicides occurred during the first rainfall following application; up to over 80% of the total herbicide losses during the period studied may occur during the first rainfall. This pattern was also observed in various other studies.

However, this process is often limited by the competition between different adsorbate organic molecules, and more importantly, by the organic matter naturally present in raw waters (Agbekodo et al. 1996). 3 47 Chlorination Chlorine is a chemical commonly used as an oxidizing agent in water treatment plants. For pH close to neutral values, chlorine is mainly in the form of hypochlorous acid. Chlorine is capable of oxidizing a wide range of organic compounds with one or many double bonds, including aromatic groups, a major element of the molecular structure of pesticides.

Because growers expect to maintain their productivity, they will probably continue to use chemical herbicides as an important method of weed Pesticides and Sustainable Agriculture 39 control. The integration of chemical and nonchemical techniques will increase the complexity of weed management. From the “ecological-based” practices to intensive “conventional” ones, there is a wide range of combined practices that would be site-specific and year-specific. The best combination of practices at a large scale has not been extensively documented yet regarding losses of pesticides into water.

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