By Kevin Passmore
What's fascism? Is it progressive? Or is it reactionary? This e-book argues that it really is either: fascism unleashes violence opposed to the left and ethnic minorities, but additionally condemns the bourgeoisie for its "softness". Kevin Passmore opens his e-book with a chain of "scenes from fascist life"--a mystery assembly of the Romanian Iron shield; Mussolini assembly the king of Italy; a rally of Hungarian medical professionals calling for regulations at the variety of Jews getting into the occupation. He then seems on the paradoxes of fascism via its origins within the political and social trouble of the past due 19th century, the heritage of fascist hobbies and regimes in Italy and Germany, and the fortunes of "failed" fascist events in Romania, Hungary and Spain. He indicates how fascism employs propaganda and pop culture to propagate itself and the way it exported its principles outdoors Europe, via Nazi and Spanish post-war get away routes to Latin the United States. The publication concludes with a dialogue of the new revival of the extraordinary correct in Austria, Italy, France, and Russia.
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Additional info for Fascism: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)
Fascism and its history would have been very different – as Chapters 4 and 5 will demonstrate – had a charismatic leader and mass party not claimed to incarnate the nation. Although fascists disagreed on the relative weight to be given to, and the meaning of, different aspects of fascism, all parts were linked together. If we see the features mentioned by Griffin as expendable, then we risk seriously misunderstanding the significance of fascism in the inter-war years, its internal dynamic, and how it differed from rival ideologies.
Whereas authoritarian conservatives use the police and army to suppress the left, fascist paramilitary organizations assume this task themselves, believing the authorities to be inadequate for the job. Fascists represent a new ‘manly’ elite invested with the task of replacing weak, ‘effeminate’, or ‘impotent’ established politicians, and ensuring that business and the family be subordinated to the national interest. It is important to clarify what fascists mean when they appeal to the people. They do not see the people as an economic or social class – they do not, for example, mean the petty bourgeoisie.
Hitherto Mussolini had been irrelevant. His Fascio di Combattimento, founded in Milan on 23 March 1919, recruited a few ex-soldiers, syndicalists, and Futurists. Its programme combined nationalism with republicanism, anticlericalism, female suffrage, and social reform, the guiding idea being the mobilization of men and women, workers and employers, peasants and landowners in a secular national community.