By Lance H. Gunderson, Craig Reece Allen, C. S. Holling
adaptive administration methods to atmosphere and source management.
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Additional info for Foundations of Ecological Resilience
S. Carpenter, J. A. Foley, C. Folke, and B. Walker. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413:591–96. Sousa, W. , and J. H. Connell. 1985. Further comments on the evidence for multiple stable points in natural communities. American Naturalist 125:612–15. Stow, C. , C. R. Allen, and A. S. Garmestani. 2007. Evaluating discontinuities in complex systems: Toward quantitative measures of resilience. Ecology and Society 12 (1): 26. org/vol12/iss1/art26/. Tilman, D. 1996. Biodiversity: Population versus ecosystem stability.
They might be represented as in Figure 1, where the ﬂuctuations of each population over time are shown as the sides of a box. In this example the two populations in some sense are regulating each other, but the lags in the response generate a series of oscillations whose amplitude gradually reduces to a constant and sustained value for each population. But if we are also concerned with persistence we would like to know not just how the populations behave from one particular pair of starting values, but from all possible pairs since there might well be combinations of starting populations for which ultimately the fate of one or other of the populations is extinction.
D. L. DeAngelis, J. B. Waide, and T. F. H. Allen. 1986. A hierarchical concept of ecosystems. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. , C. R. Allen, and C. S. Holling. 1998. Ecological resilience, biodiversity and scale. Ecosystems 1:6–18. Pimm, S. L. 1984. The complexity and stability of ecosystems. Nature 307:321–26. , S. Carpenter, J. A. Foley, C. Folke, and B. Walker. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413:591–96. Sousa, W. , and J. H. Connell. 1985. Further comments on the evidence for multiple stable points in natural communities.