By F. Sundler, E. Ekblad, R. Håkanson (auth.), David R. Brown Ph.D. (eds.)
Since the invention of the pancreatic secretagogue secretin by way of W. M. BAYLISS and E. H. STARLING on the inception of the 20th century, severe curiosity has excited by a number of, consistently increasing periods of small peptides which seem to function regulatory molecules within the gastrointestinal tract, mind, and different organ platforms. first and foremost, lots of those elements have been, like secretin, stumbled on in sensible assays as "factors" or "activities" extractable in minute amounts from tissues or tissue fluids. through the center of the century, advances in biochemical and immunological tools for the purification, characterization, and quantification of biologically lively peptides in organ structures, tissues, and physique fluids supplied extra impetus to this box. It used to be comfortably favored that small, biologically energetic peptides have been relatively plentiful within the digestive tract. Many peptides equivalent to vasoactive intestinal peptide, gastrin, and extra lately peptide YY and galanin have been in reality initially came upon in and remoted from intestine tissue. additionally, those peptides have been came across to have profound activities at the gastroenteropancreatic procedure in vivo and in vitro. in the past 2 a long time, info on regulatory peptides has burgeoned because of technological refinements within the synthesis of peptides, greater equipment for detecting and visualizing peptides and their precursors in cells and tissues from various species, advances within the sensible overview of peptide task, and the appliance of molecular organic concepts to the char acterization of peptide gene constitution and expression.
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Additional resources for Gastrointestinal Regulatory Peptides
Histochemistry 80:487-489 Alumets J, Hakanson R, Sundler F, Chang KJ (1978) Leu-enkephalin-like material in nerves and enterochromaffin cells in the gut. Histochemistry 56: 187 -196 Alumets J, Ekelund M, El Munshid HA, Hakanson R, Loren I, Sundler F (1979) Topography of somatostatin cells in the stomach of the rat; possible functional significance. Cell Tissue Res 202:177-188 Amara SG, Jonas V, Rosenfeld MG, Ong ES, Evans RM (1982) Alternative RNA processing in calcitonin gene expression generates mRNAs encoding different polypeptide products.
In the guinea pig (FURNESS and COSTA 1987) and dog (DANIEL et al. 1987), most VIP- and NPY-containing neurons constitute separate populations. In the guinea pig small intestine both these populations of neurons project anally, while in the dog small intestine and in the guinea pig large intestine (MESSENGER and FURNESS 1990) VIP-containing neurons project anally and NPY-containing neurons project orally. Like myenteric NPY-containing neurons in the guinea pig, myenteric SP-containing neurons in the rat may be used to exemplify differences between small and large intestine.
Coexistence of Peptides in Enteric Neurons Numerous neuropeptides have been detected in the enteric nervous system. One neuropeptide is often colocalized with other neuropeptides in the same neuron. , the combinations of coexisting neuropeptides, is shown in Table 3. However, peptides represent only one type of putative messenger in enteric neurons. Enteric neurons probably also contain conventional transmitters. Thus, neuropeptides may coexist with acetylcholine, noradrenaline, histamine, serotonin, or GABA.