Geology for Engineers and Environmental Scientists by Alan E. Kehew

By Alan E. Kehew

Provides readers with an creation to geology with a spotlight on real-world purposes. Case histories in approximately each bankruptcy aid emphasize the connection among geology and engineering. Has a superb historical past within the fundamentals of geology together with mineralogy, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, structural geology and plate tectonics, weathering and erosion, rivers, coastlines, and glaciers. New fabric covers geologic assets, geologic dangers, and environmental demanding situations within the present century. a brand new assessment covers the results of inhabitants progress, the use and depletion of power and water assets, the employment possibilities for geologists, strength results of weather swap. an invaluable reference for someone within the fields of civil engineering or environmental/earth science.

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5 was detected by a rapid increase in the velocity of seismic waves traveling through the earth. The boundary itself, the Mohorovicic discontinuity, or the Moho for short, has been recognized since the early 20th century. The Moho ranges in thickness between 5 and 10 km beneath the ocean floors to about 40 km beneath the con· tinents. The sharply increasing velocity of seismic waves at this interface probably repre· sents a change in rock type to denser silicate rocks in the mantle below. 7). This view allowed geologists to integrate data and observations from many diverse fields into a unifying theory of the earth's behavior, called plate tectonics.

Reed, and Paul M. , © 2002. J. 33). Originally, the Red Sea rift was a continental rift, but it became an oceanic rift as the ocean flooded into the rift as the plates spread apart. This plate boundary joins two other divergent boundaries at a triple point. The eastern arm of the triple point is an oceanic rift zone passing through the Gulf of Aden, and the southern arm is a series of continental rifts known as the East African rift zones. These rifts contain active volcanoes such as Mount Kilimanjaro and huge lakes.

When a magnetic reversal occurred, the rocks forming at the ridge crests would be of that polarity. Thus the magnetic bands were symmetrical abou t the ridge. This discovery became nearly irrefutable evidence for the formation of new lithosphere at mid oceanic plate margins. This theory became known as sea-floor spreading. It is considered to be one of the foundations of plate tectonics. 16). The rocks that Be beneath the continents differ greatly from the rocks of the ocean basins. Continental rocks are low in density and include the oldest rocks on the earth.

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