By Robert A Kaster
What did it suggest to be a qualified instructor within the prestigious "liberal schools"--the colleges of grammar and rhetoric--in overdue antiquity? How will we account for the abiding status of those faculties, which remained considerably unchanged of their equipment and status regardless of the political and spiritual adjustments that had taken position round them?
The grammarian used to be a pivotal determine within the lives of the expert higher sessions of overdue antiquity. Introducing his scholars to right language and to the literature esteemed by way of lengthy culture, he started the schooling that proven his scholars' status in a narrowly outlined elite. His occupation hence contributed to the social in addition to cultural continuity of the Empire. The grammarian got honor--and feedback; the occupation gave the grammarian a company experience of cultural authority but in addition put him ready of genteel subordination in the elite.
Robert A. Kaster offers the 1st thorough research of where and serve as of those vital yet ambiguous figures. He additionally supplies an in depth prosopography of the grammarians, and of the opposite "teachers of letters" less than the extent of rhetoric, from the center of the 3rd throughout the center of the 6th century, with the intention to supply a helpful examine device for different scholars of late-antique schooling.
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Additional resources for Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity (Transformation of the Classical Heritage, 11)
On the importance of mercenaries in Egypt under Psammetichus and the fortress at Meßad Óashavyahu in this context, see Redford 1992: 443–44. On this subject, see also Miller and Hayes 1986: 389; Naªaman 1991a: 44–51; Finkelstein 1995: 148; Kletter 1999: 42; Vanderhooft 1999: 78– 80. On the parallel between the population at Meßad Óashavyahu and the situation in the Egyptian fortresses on the Egyptian border at this time (Migdol and Daphnae/Tahpanhes), see Naªaman 1991a: 44–46, with further literature.
124 The Babylonian objective apparently was to establish a foothold west of the Euphrates as the basis of future activity beyond the river and to threaten the Egyptian garrison that was at Carchemish at the time (Grayson 1975a: 21). 122. See the Babylonian Chronicle BM 22047, lines 5–11; Wiseman 1956: 20, 64–65; Grayson 1975a: 19, 97. 123. The 19th year of Nabopolassar’s rule was an intercalation year and there were two months of Ululu, so, between the return of Nebuchadrezzar in the month of Ululu and the departure of Nabopolassar in Tasritu, at least one full month had elapsed.
See the Babylonian Chronicle BM 21901, lines 11–15; Wiseman 1956: 54–57; Grayson 1975a: 18, 91–92; Parker and Dubberstein 1956: 27. 63. See the Babylonian Chronicle BM 21901, line 16; Wiseman 1956: 13, 56–57; Grayson 1975a: 18, 92; Parker and Dubberstein 1956: 27. 64. See the Babylonian Chronicle BM 21901, line 17–22; Wiseman 1956: 13, 56–57; Grayson 1975a: 18, 92. 65. See the Babylonian Chronicle BM 21901, line 31; Wiseman 1956: 13, 56–57; Grayson 1975a: 18, 92. ), the Medes left Arrapha, attacked Kalhu (Nimrud) and Ninuwa (Nineveh), and continued rapidly northward to capture the nearby city of Tarbißu.