By Sima Bagheri
This ebook offers information on of the software of hyperspectral distant sensing – NASA/AVIRIS in nearshore water caliber problems with NY/NJ. It demonstrates using bio optical modeling and retrieval recommendations to derive the concentrations of vital water caliber parameters (chlorophyll, colour dissolved natural topic and suspended sediments) within the research sector. The case learn makes a speciality of the nearshore waters of NY/NJ regarded as a valued ecological, monetary and leisure source in the big apple metropolitan quarter. in the course of box campaigns (1998-2001) measurements have been made to set up hydrological optical homes of the NY/NJ nearshore waters with concurrent NASA/AVIRIS overflights. the sector measurements incorporated: 1) concurrent above and lower than floor spectral reflectance; 2) shipboard sampling for choice of inherent optical homes (IOP); and three) concentrations of optically vital water caliber parameters. knowing the connection among reflectance, absorption and scattering is vital for constructing the analytical set of rules essential to use distant sensing as a tracking /management software within the nearshore environment.
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Extra resources for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Nearshore Water Quality: A Case Study in New York/New Jersey
The ﬁrst step is to separate the atmospheric radiance from the radiance that comes from the water. The next step is to relate the water-leaving radiance to the water constituent concentration using a bio optical model (IOCCG 1999). Because the water-leaving radiance typically comprises at most about 10 % of the total radiance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), the key to reliable retrieval of the water-leaving radiance from the measured total radiance is an accurate correction of the effects of aerosol scattering and absorption (Bagheri et al.
The phaeopigment concentration is determined similarly after acidiﬁcation of the sample. All analysis were performed in duplicates to verify the result. Additional chlorophyll measurements have been performed using extraction in cold acetone (Strickland and Parson 1972). 45 μm Whatman GF/F ﬁlters and drying the ﬁlters at 80 °C. Ignition loss was determined by washing the ﬁlters with TSM at 550 °C. The ﬁlters were flushed with 10 ml tap water to prevent overestimation of the TSM concentration due to remaining salt left on the ﬁlter.
From these measurements spectral scattering was deduced. 45 μm Whatman GF/F ﬁlters (Figs. 10). The absorption was calculated on a basis of a calibrated relationship between the optical density of a suspension in a sample cell and the optical density on a ﬁlter (Weidemann and Cleveland 1993). The absorption spectra of color dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and the seston beam attenuation were determined spectrophotometrically according to the methods described in Rijkeboer et al. (1998). Additional measurements of spectral absorption and beam attenuation coefﬁcients were made using the ac-9 instrument.