Inside Smalltalk by Wilf R. Lalonde, John R. Pugh

By Wilf R. Lalonde, John R. Pugh

A two-volume advisor to object-oriented programming that offers the Smalltalk method as a strong and effective prototyping and improvement surroundings. quantity one introduces the basics of object-oriented programming and Smalltalk, describes the Smalltalk programming atmosphere and covers the language's easy and graphical periods. It good points large therapy of graphical and person interface sessions, info person sessions, together with relationships among similar sessions and layout rationales. The ebook has been written for use in parallel with the Smalltalk procedure.

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It is owned by the object and may not be manipulated by other objects unless the object specifically provides a protocol for doing so. For example, the external view of aPoint is shown in Fig. 1. If aPoint did not support a protocol for accessing its x and y coordinates, it would be impossible for any other object to gain access to this information. The only way to ask an object to perform any computation is by sending it a message. 1 The external view or message protocol supported by aPoint. Contrast this approach with that of Pascal, which provides almost no support for information hiding.

To whet your appetite, we will introduce a few examples of advanced control structures that may be created in Smalltalk. However, we will not yet discuss the details of their implementation. Very often we want to apply a function to each element of a data structure such as an array, a list, or a tree. For example, it is traditional to sum the elements of an array by extracting successive elements and adding them to a running sum. Alternatively, we might want to print out the values stored in a binary tree by traversing the nodes of the tree in some specified order such as post-order.

If the receiver is a point, then the method for printing points is selected. The decision about which print method to evaluate in response to a printString message is delayed until run-time and is based on the type of the Chapter 2 Smalltalk Fundamentals 29 receiver. This is called dynamic binding. 1 When the same selector is accepted by different classes of object, we say, in programming language terminology, that the selector is overloaded. Alternatively, if we equate message expressions to function calls in Pascal, we can view messages as functions that are generic in their first argument.

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