Integrated circuit packaging, assembly, and interconnections by William Greig

By William Greig

Reviewing a number of the IC packaging, meeting, and interconnection applied sciences, this expert consultant and reference presents an summary of the fabrics and the tactics, in addition to the traits and to be had techniques, that surround digital production. It covers either the technical concerns and touches on many of the reliability issues with many of the applied sciences acceptable to packaging and meeting of the IC.

The concentration is at the digital production method, which in its least difficult shape includes meeting of the IC right into a package deal or interconnect substrate or board. The e-book discusses a number of the packaging methods on hand, specifically, unmarried chip, multichip, and Chip On Board; the meeting suggestions, chip & cord, tape automatic bonding, and turn chip; and the basic excessive density package/substrate production applied sciences, skinny movie, thick movie, cofired ceramic, and laminate revealed wiring board (PWB) techniques. incorporated is also a dialogue of excessive density PWBs utilizing construct up/sequential processes.

Integrated Circuit Packaging, meeting and Interconnections is an creation, a evaluation and an replace of packaging technologies.

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Fabrication of the IC involves sophisticated materials, processes, and highly specialized and dedicated equipment that have been developed over a period of 40 years. Because the IC contains features as small as tenths of micrometers (microns, µm) and nanometers (nm), an ultraclean manufacturing environment is necessary to minimize the presence of the many “contaminants” that can adversely affect the manufacture. Yield is a critical process metric that dictates the eventual cost of these functionally dense and sophisticated devices.

5Cu (with a melting point from 217º–220ºC and a reflow temperature approximately 260°C). However, because of the higher reflow temperatures associated with the no lead solders, the availability of organic boards with the higher glass transition temperature (Tg) needed and the associated increased cost, are valid concerns. CBGAs, PBGAs and TBGAs can be directly soldered to a ceramic substrate. However, the CBGA’s high lead bumps prohibits direct attachment to the PWB because of the high melting point of the solder.

The earliest ICs followed the same packaging format as the transistor (a TO-5 metal package) differing only in the number of leads (Figure 3-1). Figure 3-1. Transistor and an Early IC Package (TO-5 Outline) Physically the package has undergone many changes, responding to the needs of the IC, the end product, and certainly cost considerations. Ideally the guidelines have always been to: Provide a package that fully supports the IC, responding to inherent thermal, mechanical and electrical requirements, Avoid, if possible, having the package limit chip performance, Make the package as small as possible, and finally, Provide a cost-effective package that does not represent a substantial percentage of the final device’s selling price.

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