Introduction to Modern Biochemistry by P. Karlson (Auth.)

By P. Karlson (Auth.)

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Carnosine and Anserine. F o u n d in muscle, both carnosine and anserine are dipeptides of ^-alanine and histidine. Their biological role is still unknown (cf. 1 R. B. Merrifield, Solid-phase peptide synthesis. III. An improved synthesis of bradykinin. Biochemistry 3, 1385-1390 (1964). R. B. Merrifield and J. M. Stewart, Automated peptide synthesis. Nature (London) 207, 522-523 (1965). 3. NATURALLY OCCURRING PEPTIDES 39 pantothenic acid, Chapter VI,7). ® H N Η COO 3 Ο CH 0 © H N^ Η Ν 3 COO® Ο 0 CH <ζ NH N=/ 2 Ν N=^ Carnosine Anserine Protamines.

Penicillin is the prototype of an antibiotic, which is generally defined as a substance that inhibits the growth and multiplication of bacteria and other microorganisms and is of biological origin. These were the properties responsible for the discovery of penicillin by Fleming in 1928. Antibiotics affect only certain groups of bacteria; they exhibit a definite spectrum of action. Antibiotics are an invaluable aid for the control of infectious diseases because they prevent rapid growth of the causative agents.

They can interact among themselves or with the solvent. The secondary amino acid proline does not fit into the helix, and wherever it occurs in the amino acid sequence there is a deviation from the regular structure. Both structures just discussed, the pleated-sheet and the α-helix, are stabilized by hydrogen bonds between atoms belonging to the peptide bonds and consequently are "secondary structures" of proteins, as defined earlier. 4. , keratin of hair, nails, and feathers, and collagen. , the molecules are ordered in a certain way.

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