By Amretashis Sengupta, Chandan Kumar Sarkar
This e-book covers the fundamentals of nanotechnology and offers an excellent figuring out of the topic. ranging from a brush-up of the fundamental quantum mechanics and fabrics technology, the publication is helping to progressively increase figuring out of a number of the results of quantum confinement, optical-electronic homes of nanoparticles and significant nanomaterials. The ebook covers many of the actual, chemical and hybrid tools of nanomaterial synthesis and nanofabrication in addition to complicated characterization suggestions. It contains chapters at the a variety of purposes of nanoscience and nanotechnology. it truly is written in an easy shape, making it helpful for college kids of actual and fabric sciences.
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Additional info for Introduction to Nano: Basics to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Considering an inﬁnite chain, this was approximated by a periodic square well potential by Kronig and Penney. In such a periodic potential, where UðxÞ ¼ Uðx þ LÞ ð53Þ The Bloch’s theorem expresses the wavefunction with a periodic amplitude part uðxÞ having the same periodicity as that of the potential (1-D lattice in this case). The wave function is represented as ~ wðxÞ ¼ eikÁ~x uðxÞ ð54Þ The amplitude part satisﬁes the condition uðxÞ ¼ uðx þ LÞ, which ensures the continuity of the wavefunction in the periodic lattice (Fig.
Further depending upon the position of atoms on the face or the in the center of the crystal, they can be distinguished as face-centered or body-centered systems. The coordinate system of a 3D Cartesian lattice is described in terms of the sides of the unit cell a, b, and c and the angles between the planes a, b and c (Fig. 7). Basic Solid-State Physics and Crystallography 33 Fig. 7 The Cartesian system describing the crystal system In terms of the coordinates, the seven systems can be easily distinguished as: Cubic Tetragonal Orthorhombic Monoclinic Triclinic Rhombohedral Hexagonal a a a a a a a =b=c =b≠c ≠b≠c ≠b≠c ≠b≠c =b=c =b≠c α α α α α α α = β = γ = 90° = β = γ = 90° = β = γ = 90° = γ = 90° ≠ β ≠ β ≠ γ ≠ 90° = β = γ ≠ 90° = β = 90°, γ = 120° Taking into account the variations depending upon body/face or base centered (one of the faces has an atom while others do not), there are 14 Bravais lattices to classify various crystallographic unit cells.
Therefore, intrinsic graphene has a very high amount of carrier density given by [4, 13] p jB T 2 ni ¼ 6 htF ð9Þ which corresponds to a value of $ 1010 =cm2 at room temperature. Such huge availability of carriers makes graphene an excellent conductor. Free-standing sheets of graphene show doping-independent high carrier mobility of over 200 cm2 V−1 s−1 (carriers in graphene are considered to be massless Dirac Fermions). Further, it is optically transparent and highly flexible but stronger than steel (Fig.