By Wolfgang Nörenberg, Hans A. Weidenmüller (auth.)
With the appearance of heavy-ion reactions, nuclear physics has got a brand new frontier. the hot heavy-ion assets working at electrostatic accelerators and the high-energy experiments played at Berkeley, Dubna, Manchester and Orsay, have spread out the sphere, and feature proven us extraordinary new clients. the recent accelerators now less than development at Berlin, Daresbury and Darmstadt, in addition to these into account (GANIL, Oak Ridge, and so on. ) are anticipated so as to add considerably to our wisdom and figuring out of nuclear homes. this is applicable not just to such unique issues because the life and lifetimes of superheavy components, or the possibil ity of concern waves in nuclei, but additionally to such extra mundane matters as high-spin states, new areas of deformed nuclei and friction forces. the sector provides not just to supply a wealthy number of fascinating phenomena, but additionally to have commonly used theoretical implications. Heavy-ion reactions are characterised by way of the big lots of the fragments, in addition to the excessive overall strength and the big overall angular momentum generally thinking about the collision. A basically quantum-mechanical description of one of these collision technique will be too advanced to be both attainable or inter esting. we predict and, in a few cases,know that the classical restrict, the restrict of geometrical optics, a quantum-statistical or a hydrodynamical description thoroughly account for commonplace features.
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Extra info for Introduction to the Theory of Heavy-Ion Collisions
Qualitatively speaking (see fig. 4 .. 1), we expect for Rutherford scattering, accompanied by Coulomb excitation and, for nucleon transfer by tunneling processes, For b ::::=: b gr b > b gr b pure close to bgr the nuclear interaction sets in. The duration time of the HI collision is expected to be short 0 and we , therefore, expect reactions to dominate to which compound- - 52 - nucleus formation does not contribute. These are the "direct reactions" described in chapter 7 . For smaller values of b we encounter the "deeply inelastic col- lis ions" discussed in chapter 2 and perhaps compound-nucleus formation.
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This is consistent with the change of the high energy peak towards smaller energi~s as one goes from the grazing angle to more forward angles, Elements between oxygen and vanadium have been observed, For products which are far from Ar, only the low energy part is seen, The lower end of the spectra is close to the energy of the Coulomb barrier for the fragments. -s 1116 107 ... -• ENERGY Fig. 1 ( MIV) Energy spectra for different lab. angles of Cl, Ar, K and Ca . produced ln the bombardment of 232 Th by 388 MeV 40Ar .