By G. M. N. Verschuuren
A different advent to the philosophy of technological know-how with precise emphasis at the existence sciences. half I provides ordinary yet basic techniques and difficulties in epistemology and their relation to questions of clinical technique. half II offers with case reports from the background of biology which illustrate specific philosophical issues whereas half III progresses to extra complicated rules as at the nature and method of technological know-how. half IV discusses the constraints of clinical enquiry and its family to different platforms of information and interpretation.
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Additional resources for Investigating the Life Sciences. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science
15. C. Hempel (1966, 17) is a classific representative of this view: scientific knowledge is arrived at by inventing hypotheses as tentative answers to a problem under study, and then subjecting these to empirical test. 16. C. Bernard (1957, 163, 181). BERNARD'S O R G A N I C I S M ' 43 Although Bernard passed through the empirical circle many times during this process of investigation, it might be better to visualize the advances he made in a linear way, as in Scheme 10 (the upper lines represent the theoretical level of provisional hypotheses; the lower lines represent the factual level of experimental results).
Make the mistake of confusing invention of an experiment with noting its results (24). . facts also exist which mean nothing to most minds, while they are full of light for others (34). . theories . . are only partial and provisional truths . . and consequently they must change with the growth of science (36). . we ought to examine . . the facts which apparently would overthrow it, because real progress always consists in exchanging an old theory which includes fewer facts for a new one (40).
What kind of relation could there be between a statement and an event? The correspondence theory, as such, does not state how the related elements correspond, only that they do correspond. A very common interpretation of this correspondence is given in the mirror theory: thoughts or statements or whatever REFLECT things or facts or events or whatever. Unfortunately, some people reject the correspondence theory because of the mirror theory, but these are not necessarily connected. Indeed, the mirror theory has many weaknesses.