Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Mysticism: A Short by Majid Fakhry

By Majid Fakhry

From the creation of Greek philosophy within the 8th century to fashionable occasions, this e-book charts the evolution and interplay of philosophy, theology, and mysticism within the Islamic context.

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Additional resources for Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Mysticism: A Short Introduction

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Al-Farabi, al-Madinah al-Fadilah, p. 32. Cf. Aristotle, Metaphysics, XII, 1072b 18. Al-Madinah al-Fa’dilah, p. 39. 42 X Islamic Philosophy A S H O R T I NTRODUCTI ON gives rise to the first heaven. In the sequel, the third intellect and the sphere of the fixed stars corresponding to it arise in succession, then the fourth intellect and its corresponding sphere, or that of Saturn. This process continues until the fifth, the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth intellects, together with their corresponding spheres, are progressively generated.

Al-Razi bases his ethical theory on the psychology of Socrates and Plato, ‘the master of the philosophers and their great chief’, as al-Razi puts it. According to them, the soul is divisible into three parts, the rational or divine, the irascible or animal and the concupiscent or vegetative, as Galen (d. 200), the great Alexandrian 13. 14. Al-Razi, al-Tibb al-Ruhani, in Fakhry, al-Fikr al-Akhlaqi al-‘Arabi, p. 263. Ibid. SYSTEMATI C PHI LOSOPHY AND FREE THOUGHT X 33 physician and philosopher, expressed it in his Ethics.

This reason, which is able to apprehend those intelligibles at will, may be described as the zenith of human cognitive capacity and the borderline between the material world and that of separate intelligences; 4. the Active Intellect, which is the lowest of these intelligences, and may be described as the supermundane agency which imparts to human reason the power to actualize its cognitions. It is in that respect analogous to the sun, which makes potentially visible objects actually visible. However, unlike Aristotle, whose view he is here interpreting, al-Farabi attributes a semi-creative role to the Active Intellect.

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