By Bruce Elleman
The $64000 and formerly undocumented occasion within the historical past of the second one international conflict: the negotiation of 'prisoner' exchanges among the us and Japan in the course of 1941 to 1943, is tested right here by way of Bruce Elleman.Approximately 7000 americans have been arrested through the japanese professionals whereas vacationing Japan as travelers, engaging in enterprise, instructing English or engaging in missionary paintings. an identical quantity of eastern voters residing illegally within the usa needed to be repatriated to safe the americans' release.Challenging the traditional perceptions concerning the function and justification of the detention camp, this insightful publication addresses questions in regards to the diplomatic contract among Japan and the us, the Japanese-American detention camps and the function of 1 of the main profitable minority teams within the usa this present day: the Japanese-Americans.
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Additional info for Japanese-American Civilian Prisoner Exchanges and Detention Camps, 1941-45 (Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia)
And Japanese officials and their families to their homelands, the exchange of government officials included citizens of many other allied or occupied countries as well. S. S. government was attempting to set a high standard for treatment of the Japanese citizens that the other governments would then be obliged to follow. S. government unwittingly obliged itself to assume diplomatic responsibility for the treatment of Japanese nationals by other countries not under the direct authority of Washington.
S. S. citizens being detained in Japan. 22 Origin of the exchange program Conclusions The framework developed to exchange officials would largely dictate the exchange of non-officials. Within weeks of Pearl Harbor, the United States and Japan had negotiated a process for the exchange of official government employees and had begun the task of discussing the exchange of non-officials. Many of the conditions that applied quite logically to the exchange of officials did not, with hindsight, apply equally conveniently to non-officials.
35 The Japanese government eventually backed down and accepted the American changes to its preferred list. A total of 1,500 passengers departed on the first voyage of Gripsholm. Of these, 1,083 embarked in New York and an additional 417 embarked at Rio de Janeiro; the only non-Japanese included 18 Thai nationals who boarded the ship in New York. S. governments tried to include additional priority evacuees on their lists, while withholding or threatening to withhold certain key persons from the other country’s list.