By M. A. Osipov (auth.), Valery P. Shibaev, Lui Lam (eds.)
Among some of the new instructions in sleek polymer technological know-how, the layout and research of liquid crystal (LC) polymers were those transforming into so much actively and fruitfully. despite that, the prospective formation of an anisotropic LC section was once basically validated theoretically for the 1st time within the Fifties by means of Onsager  and Flory , after which experimentally confirmed within the reports with polypeptides ideas. In essence, the reviews of those LC lyotropic platforms didn't deviate from the topic of only educational curiosity. It was once before everything of the Nineteen Seventies that the experimental "explosion" happened, whilst fragrant polyamides have been synthesized and their skill to shape LC options in yes very competitive solvents used to be stumbled on. the hunt for useful purposes of such LC structures was once topped with the profitable production of the hot iteration of ultrastrong high-modulus ther mostable fibers, reminiscent of the Kevlar, as a result excessive measure of order of the macromolecules within the anisotropic LC kingdom. in truth, those investigations coincided with the speedy emergence at the functional "scene" of thermotropic low-molar-mass liquid crystals, with using those fabrics in microelectronics and electro optics (figures and allow ters symptoms, monitors in own pcs, and flat television, etc.). Polymer scientists additionally started to enhance equipment of synthesizing thermotropic LC polymers through incorporating mesogenic fragments generally (main-chain LC polymers) or part branchings of the macromolecules (side-chain or comb formed polymers).
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Extra info for Liquid Crystalline and Mesomorphic Polymers
This trend is clearly illustrated by the data [1, 2J of 2. 1. Plot showing the effect of length of oligomeric ester chains on their melting points and on the nematic-isotropic transition temperatures. Data from  and  (0 Tm; /:::,. 7(c-;). Fig. 1, in which both the nematic-isotropic transition temperature and the melting point are plotted against the number of units in oligomeric ester molecules. In general, the liquid crystalline transition temperature increases more quickly than the melting point so the range of mesophase stability does increase.
Torruella, J. Chern. Phys. 56, 303 (1972). 28. W. Van der Meer, Thesis, Groningen, 1979. 29. TJ. Sluckin and P. Shukla, J. Phys. A, Math. Gen. 16, 1539 (1983). 30. Y. Singh, Phys. Rev. A 30,583 (1984). 31. A. Osipov, Kristallografiya 33,817 (1988). 32. A. M. Terentjev, Soviet Scientific Reviews, All, 193 (1989). 33. D. Lipkin, SA Rice, and U. Mohanty, J. Chern. Phys. 84 1796 (1986). 34. A. Poniewierski and J. Stecki, Mol. Phys. 38,1931 (1979). 35. P. Straley, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 24, 7 (1973).
4(a, b) shows a series of simulations at 1300 K and 250 K, respectively, for molecule (8) in which some of the aromatic rings are meso linked so that they effectively kink the chain at quite low temperatures. Note that, although the straight sequences between the kinks are somewhat more apparent at the lower temperature, the straightness of the chain overall is determined more by the presence of kinked units than the temperature. 5 shows three views of the same molecule (5) at 500 K but at different resolutions.