Location Systems: An Introduction to the Technology Behind by Anthony LaMarca

By Anthony LaMarca

Advances in digital place expertise and the arriving of age of cellular computing have opened the door for location-aware functions to permeate all facets of way of life. position is on the center of a giant variety of high-value purposes starting from the life-and-death context of emergency reaction to serendipitous social meet-ups. for instance, the marketplace for GPS services on my own is predicted to develop to US$200 billion via 2015. regrettably, there's no unmarried position know-how that's reliable for each scenario and indicates excessive accuracy, reasonably-priced, and common assurance. actually, excessive accuracy and solid insurance seldom coexist, and once they do, it comes at an severe fee. in its place, the fashionable localization panorama is a kaleidoscope of situation platforms in line with a large number of alternative applied sciences together with satellite tv for pc, cellular telephony, 802.11, ultrasound, and infrared between others. This lecture introduces researchers and builders to the most well-liked applied sciences and structures for place estimation and the demanding situations and possibilities that accompany their use. for every expertise, we speak about the historical past of its improvement, a few of the platforms which are in accordance with it, and their trade-offs and their results on fee and function. We additionally describe technology-independent algorithms which are usual to soft streams of situation estimates and enhance the accuracy of item monitoring. ultimately, we offer an outline of the wide range of software domain names the place situation performs a key function, and talk about possibilities and new applied sciences at the horizon. desk of Contents: creation / the worldwide Positioning process / Infrared and Ultrasonic structures / place Esimation with 802.11 / Cellular-Based platforms / different methods / bettering Localization Accuracy / Location-Based functions and companies / demanding situations and possibilities / References

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2 42 LOCATION SYSTEMS swaths of terrain to be quickly mapped at the cost of reduced accuracy in the AP location estimates. The errors in AP placement come from a variety of sources: first, GPS is being used to record the location of radio observations, and GPS itself has an 8- to 10-m median error. This is compounded by the error introduced by the modeling used to predict AP location from the set of observations. A comparison of war-driven AP locations to the true location of five APs in a residential area found a median error of 26 m [96].

First, the Cricket designers observed that the ultrasound signals would commonly bend around the edge of obstacles due to diffraction. As a result, they found it was uncommon to receive a pulse via an indirect path without first receiving it from the direct path. Thus, the Crickets could simply measure the time to the first ultrasonic pulse and ignore the subsequent reflections. Second, Crickets perform smoothing by estimating the closest beacon to be the one with the lowest average estimated distance over a window of samples.

S. Federal Communication Commission E911 mandate and its European Community counterpart E112 to locate mobile phone calls to assist in the delivery of emergency services. In addition, the wide adoption and ubiquitous connectivity of cellular phones makes them tempting platforms for the delivery of location-based services, such as advertising, recommendation systems, and gaming. A localization system based on cellular signals, such as GSM or CDMA, has the key advantages that it leverages the phone’s existing hardware and can potentially provide location estimates anywhere voice service is available.

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