Metaphor: A Practical Introduction by Zoltán Kövecses

By Zoltán Kövecses

This transparent and lucid primer fills a huge want by way of offering a accomplished account of the various new advancements within the learn of metaphor over the past two decades and their influence on our realizing of language, tradition, and the brain. starting with Lakoff and Johnson's seminal paintings in Metaphors we are living through, Kövecses outlines the improvement of "the cognitive linguistic conception of metaphor" by means of explaining key rules on metaphor. He additionally explores fundamental metaphor, metaphor structures, the "invariance principle," mental-imagery experiments, the many-space mixing conception, and the function of photo schemas in metaphorical idea. He examines the applicability of those rules to varied similar fields.

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2. Ontological Metaphors Ontological metaphors provide much less cognitive structuring for target concepts than structural ones do. Their cognitive job seems to be to “merely” give an ontological status to general categories of abstract target concepts. What this simply means is that we conceive of our experiences in terms of objects, substances, and containers, in general, without specifying exactly what kind of object, substance, or container is meant. Since our knowledge about objects, substances, and containers is rather limited at this general level, we cannot use these highly general categories to understand much about target domains.

Lakoff and Turner (1989) draw the distinction between specific- and generic-level metaphors. Krzeszowski (1993) discusses the evaluative function of many image-schemas. EXERCISES 1. Which orientational metaphor pairs do these linguistic examples refer to? (a) an upstanding citizen; a low trick; a low-down thing (b) lofty position; to rise to the top; the bottom of social hierarchy KINDS OF METAPHOR (c) high spirits; to be depressed; to be low (d) in top shape; to fall ill; to drop dead. 2. Identify the conceptual metaphors underlying the following proverbs, graffitis, or quotations.

Times are oriented with their fronts in their direction of motion. The other version of the time is motion metaphor is: time passing is an observer’s motion over a landscape There’s going to be trouble along the road. His stay in Russia extended over many years. He passed the time happily. We’re coming up on Christmas. We’re getting close to Christmas. Whereas in the first version the observer is fixed, in this second version times are fixed locations and the observer is moving with respect to time.

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