By Isaac S. Kohane, Alvin Kho, Atul J. Butte
Practical genomics--the deconstruction of the genome to figure out the organic functionality of genes and gene interactions--is the most fruitful new parts of biology. The starting to be use of DNA microarrays permits researchers to evaluate the expression of tens of millions of genes at a time. This quantitative swap has resulted in qualitative growth in our skill to appreciate regulatory strategies on the mobile level.This publication presents a scientific advent to using DNA microarrays as an investigative instrument for useful genomics. The presentation is acceptable for readers from biology or bioinformatics. After offering a framework for the layout of microarray-driven practical genomics experiments, the publication discusses the principles for examining microarray info units, genomic data-mining, the construction of standardized nomenclature and knowledge types, medical functions of practical genomics study, and the way forward for sensible genomics.
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Extra info for Microarrays for an Integrative Genomics, 3rd edition (Computational Molecular Biology)
After all, if we cannot reliably name the same gene in identical fashion across experiments, if we cannot reliably retrieve expression data from all the microarray experiments of interest, if we cannot readily access the meaning and function of genes determined by thousands of researchers, then the whole enterprise of functional genomics will be crippled if not intractable. There is a related discipline to bioinformatics—clinical informatics—which refers to the application of information science to various aspects of clinical care.
Will it be the surgeons who obtained the tissue, the bioinformaticians who performed the cluster analysis, the biologist who runs the microarray facility, or the clinician who obtained the phenotypic characterization of the patient from whom the tissue was obtained? Resolving this issue is nontrivial because of some fundamental human and cultural considerations of the various types of investigators. Within each discipline, an investigator will tend to see those outside his or her discipline as performing more of a utility function rather than making a significant intellectual and creative contribution to the research process.
Although this activity is quite distinct from the analytic efforts touched on above, it currently consumes perhaps the largest proportion of the bioinformatics community because its resolution is urgent and a sine qua non for the success of any of the analytic efforts. After all, if we cannot reliably name the same gene in identical fashion across experiments, if we cannot reliably retrieve expression data from all the microarray experiments of interest, if we cannot readily access the meaning and function of genes determined by thousands of researchers, then the whole enterprise of functional genomics will be crippled if not intractable.