By J. W. De Jong
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Additional resources for Myocardial Energy Metabolism
Goodale WT, Hackel DB: Myocardial carbohydrate metabolism in normal dogs, with effects of hyperglycemia and starvation. Circ Res 1:509-517, 1953 19. Goodale WT, Olson RE, Hackel DB: The effects of fasting and diabetes mellitus on myocardial metabolism in man. Am J Med 27:212-220, 1959 20. Hom FG, Goodner CJ, Berrie MA: A (3H)2-deoxyglucose method for comparing rates of glucose metabolism and insulin repsonses among rat tissues in vivo. Diabetes 33:141-152,1984 21. Idell-Wenger JA, Neely JR: Regulation of uptake and metabolism of fatty acids by muscle.
This is particularly strange because the activation of fatty acid is accomplished by two distinct enzymes that share the same cytosolic coenzyme A pool, which is very small. One of these enzymes, representing 80% of the total activity, is attached to the mitochondrial outer membrane, and the other to the endoplasmic reticulum (7). Function of L-Carnitine in Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation Carnitine (L-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylaminobutyric acid) was discovered in 1905 as an abundant constituent of muscle (17).
Once inside the mitochondria, acyl-CoA is committed to oxidation by the system of beta-oxidation. The beta-oxidation pathway is controlled by fluctuations in the concentrations of substrates (acyl-CoA, NAD+, and FAD+; ref. 7), or, expressed in more physiological terms, by work load and oxygen supply of the heart. It is not yet clear how the rate of oxidation of FFA in the intact heart is related to citric acid cycle activity and the rate of oxidative phosphorylation. C. ly of FFA is abundant and exceeds the liver's capacity for their complete oxidatIOn in the citric acid cycle.