By Beth Okamura, Alexander Gruhl, Jerri L. Bartholomew
This booklet presents an up to date evaluation of the biology of myxozoans, which signify a divergent clade of endoparasitic cnidarians. Myxozoans are of primary curiosity in figuring out how early diverging metazoans have followed parasitic existence, and also are of substantial fiscal and ecological crisis as endoparasites of fish. Synthesizing contemporary study, the chapters discover matters similar to myxozoan origins; evolutionary traits and diversification; improvement and lifestyles cycles; interactions with hosts; immunology; disorder ecology; the affects of weather switch on affliction; danger evaluation; rising ailments; and disorder mitigation. This accomplished paintings will attract a large readership, from invertebrate zoologists, evolutionary biologists and developmental biologists to ecologists and parasitologists. it's going to even be of significant functional curiosity to fisheries and conservation biologists. The identity of key parts for destiny learn will attract scientists in any respect degrees.
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Additional info for Myxozoan Evolution, Ecology and Development
Relatively few cnidarians occur in freshwaters and current evidence suggests that all (except possibly Polypodium) are hydrozoans. Hydrozoans exhibit several instances of independent evolution to inhabit freshwaters (Jankowski et al. 2008), and Hydra is often found attached to bryozoan colony surfaces (Fig. 3) perhaps reflecting an association with future hosts by an ancestral hydrozoan form which preceded a transition to parasitism (Poulin 2007). Notably, the suspension feeding activity of bryozoans may predispose them to ingest a wide range of potential food items, including propagative stages of hydrozoans such as eggs, planulae, or small regressed stages (see Chap.
However, Siddall et al. (1995) concluded that myxozoans grouped within the Cnidaria as sister to Polypodium hydriforme on the basis of combined analyses of SSU rDNA and morphological data. At the time, morphological features that supported a metazoan nature included septate and adherens-type cell junctions, structural and functional differentiation of cells and separation of somatic and germ cells (Siddall et al. 1995; Lom and Dyková 1997). However, the separation of somatic and germ cells is not a clear-cut metazoan character as it has evolved several times in different lineages of multicellular organisms (and bacteria: Oliveiro and Katz 2014), and is also implemented in varying degrees in metazoans (Grosberg and Strathmann 2007).
1996; Pawlowski et al. 1996; Winnepenninckx et al. 1998) demonstrated the importance of long branch attraction in impeding phylogenetic resolution of the Myxozoa (see Canning and Okamura 2004, for review). Analyses of SSU rDNA sequences were also demonstrating variable phylogenetic placement for myxozoans depending, for instance, on the incorporation of Polypodium hydriforme and the analyses of partial versus full length sequences (see Canning and Okamura 2004, for review). Kim et al. (1999) attempted to control for long branch attraction by analysing only full (or near full) length SSU rDNA sequences obtained for the species with the shortest branch to the ancestral node in each monophyletic lineage but their results were relatively inconclusive.