By Wendy K. Silverman
For a long time, nervousness and phobie problems ofchildhoodand formative years have been neglected by way of clinicians and researchers alike. They have been considered as mostly benign, as difficulties that have been fairly gentle, age-specific, and transitory. With time, it was once proposal, they might easily disappear or "go away"-that the kid or adolescent could magically "outgrow" them with improvement and they wouldn't adversely have an effect on the starting to be baby or adolescent. for this reason ofsuch considering, it used to be concluded that those "internalizing" difficulties weren't helpful or deserving of our concerted and cautious attention-that different difficulties of formative years and formative years and, particularly, "externalizing" difficulties equivalent to behavior disturbance, oppositional defiance, and attention-deficit difficulties de manded our expert energies and assets. those assumptions and asser tions were challenged vigorously lately. Scholarly books (King, Hamilton, & Ollendick, 1988; Morris & Kratochwill, 1983) have documented the huge misery and distress linked to those problems, whereas studies ofthe literature have confirmed that those issues are something yet transitory; for an important variety of formative years those difficulties persist into past due early life and maturity (Ollendick & King, 1994). basically, such findings sign the necessity for therapy courses that "work"--programs which are powerful within the brief time period and efficacious over the lengthy haul, generating results which are sturdy and generalizable, as weil as results that improve the existence functioning of youngsters and youngsters and the households that evince such problems.
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Getting lost. kidnappe d). 4. Consistent refusal to engage in situations that involve separation. 5. Steady fear ofbeing alone at horne and in other situat ions. 6. Frequent refusal to go to sleep without parent or loved one or to sleep over at friends' hornes. 7. Numerous disturbing dreams of separation. 8. • stomachaches, headach es) in separation situations . At least 3 of 8 above symptoms must be present in the child. B. The disturban ce should bc experienced for at least 4 wecks. C. The onset is cxperienced before the agc of 18.
So here the goal of assessment is identifying and quantifying problematic anxious symptoms or behaviors. " In this case , the goal of assessment is to gauge treatment outcome . In the final situation you wish to go beyond your patients' self-reports. Here the goal is to obtain more detailed information about your patients' problem behaviors. 1. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ASSESSMENT METHODS Now that we have identified the goal for each of the assessment settings, we discuss some of the concrete issues and details involved in identifying the 20 Chapter 2 assessment method that is best to use in that setting and for that goal.
Not only is it difficult for them to detail "what the child looks like when he or she becomes anxious," it is also difficult for them to specify the situations or objects that elicit anxiety. You are interested in broadening your current methods of assessment in your practice so that this type of information is also obtained. At first glance , this array of situations appears to represent a diverse and discrete matrix of settings with no common theme . You may have had previous experience with some ofthese types ofsettings but not others.