By Professor Dr. Klaus Urich (auth.)
tribute enormously to figuring out the origins of The plan for this e-book is going again nearly two decades. Already, at the moment, it used to be attainable to acknowledge organisms. a unprecedented version in metabolites and to supply the biochemist with a prepared over tactics superimposed upon the elemental biochem view of the structural range of animals, the booklet contains a simplified model of animal sys ical process of animals. every one species, every one indi tematics; for additional details at the classifica vidual, in reality each one kind of telephone of the multicellu lar organism possesses its personal biochemical char tion, constitution and lifetime of specific animal spe acter, and this molecular type, its organic sig cies, the reader may still seek advice the appropriate textual content nificance, and its evolutionary improvement books. it's assumed that the zoologist reader has throw up many attention-grabbing questions. The com a uncomplicated wisdom of biochemistry; very important basic biochemical proof are at least given for parative process that has been so effective at the various matters lined. the better degrees of complexity of morphology and body structure is additionally used to nice influence at I had already accomplished numerous chapters of the molecular point. this e-book via the start of the 1970s.
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Extra info for Comparative Animal Biochemistry
27). 2. Variant repetition: When multiple genes produced by gene amplification develop independently in evolution (diversification), there arises a family of related but significantly different gene products that may be adapted to various conditions in different cell types or in different developmental stages. This book contains many such examples. Multiple genes arise through gene duplication, the genetic mechanism of which is most likely unequal crossing-over. The duplicated genes are at first arranged one after the other (a tandem cluster); the genes of a family can also be spread throughout the genome (dispersed genes); and finally, there are mUlti-gene families with most of the members together in one or more clusters and single copies (orphons) at other positions in the genome.
Amplification of the rRNA genes is also found in other amphibians, fish, many insects, and to a lesser extent in other animals . A different amplification mechanism occurs in the ovary follicle cells of Drosophila; within about 5 h these produce a secondary egg membrane (chorion) from a series of specific proteins. The chorion protein genes lie in two clusters on different chromosomes. The cluster on the X chromosome is amplified about 20 times and is expressed earlier than the 60- to 80-fold amplified cluster on chromosome 3.
Stable mRNAs accumulated over a long period are to be found, for example, for globins in the reticulocytes or for ovalbumin in the oviduct cells. The large egg cells of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, require about 1012 ribosomes and corresponding amounts of tRNA for the protein synthesis that is initiated by fertilization. The immature oocytes contain reserves of 5S rRNA and tRNA in 7S and 42S nucleoprotein particles. In the smaller 7S particles, about half of the total 5S rRNA is assiociated with one protein species, and in the large 42S particles, the other half of the 5S rRNA and almost the total tRNA is associated with two further proteins.