Computational Models of Referring: A Study in Cognitive by Kees van Deemter

By Kees van Deemter

To converse, audio system have the desire to make it transparent what they're conversing approximately. The act of referring, which anchors phrases to objects, is a primary point of language. during this ebook, Kees van Deemter indicates that computational types of reference supply beautiful instruments for taking pictures the complexity of referring. certainly, the versions van Deemter offers hide many concerns past the fundamental inspiration of relating an item, together with connection with units, approximate descriptions, descriptions produced below uncertainty about the hearer's wisdom, and outlines that target to notify or impact the hearer.

The booklet, which might be learn as a case research in cognitive technology, attracts on views from around the cognitive sciences, together with philosophy, experimental psychology, formal good judgment, and laptop technological know-how. Van Deemter advocates a mix of computational modeling and cautious experimentation because the most well liked strategy for increasing those insights. He then exhibits this technique in motion, protecting a number of algorithms and quite a few equipment for checking out them. He exhibits that the strategy permits us to version logically advanced referring expressions, and demonstrates how we will achieve an figuring out of reference in events the place the speaker's wisdom is hard to evaluate or the place the referent resists targeted definition. eventually, he proposes a application of study that addresses the open questions that stay during this region, arguing that this software can considerably improve our realizing of human communication.

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Quantity. The Maxim of Quantity: 1. Make your contribution as informative as is required. 2. Do not make your contribution more informative than is required. Relation. The Maxim of Relation contains just one requirement: 1. Be relevant. Manner. The Maxim of Manner says: 1. Avoid obscurity of expression. 2. Avoid ambiguity. 3. Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity). 4. Be orderly. Grice notoriously did not formalize his Maxims, which are consequently open to different interpretations. Importantly, the Gricean Maxims come into their own when they are “honoured in the breach”: they help speakers to convey information by violating them (or appearing to violate them).

Where the work is motivated by theoretical considerations, the emphasis can be on either type of model, though the former type is studied more often than the latter. The book will try to do justice to both types of research. Models that mimic speakers will take centre stage in the first two Parts, because the bulk of the work on simple REs (what I call the classic REG task) has predominantly taken this perspective. Parts III and IV will switch back and forth between the two perspectives. Occasionally the two perspectives will merge, because in trying to find an effective way to speak, it can be useful to seek inspiration from human language production.

If the intersection [[zebra]] ∩ [[pregnant]] happens to be a singleton set, then the combination of the properties “being a zebra” and “being pregnant” is suitable for building an RE. This RE would refer to the set containing only the one pregnant zebra and, by an obvious extension, to this zebra itself. At the end of the 19th century, the philosopher and logician Gottlob Frege wrote extensively about the way in which the meaning of a sentence depends First Part: Setting the stage 31 on the meanings of its syntactic parts [Frege, 1960], a perspective that has come to be associated with the term compositional semantics.

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