By Dirk Leuffen
This cutting edge new textual content offers a cutting-edge creation to the learn of ecu integration, focusing centrally on explaining the differentiated personality of the eu Union when it comes to coverage components, institutional improvement and geographical span.
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Extra info for Differentiated Integration: Explaining Variation in the European Union
Prior to the entry into force of the SEA, this form of intergovernmental cooperation was the predominant decision-making mode. Based on the so-called ‘Luxembourg Compromise’, an informal decision rule adopted to end the ‘empty chair crisis’ which paralyzed legislative decision-making in the Community between July 1965 and January 1966, every piece of legislation could be vetoed by a single member state if ‘vital’ national interests were deemed to be at stake. At present, it is in the area of security and defence policy where member states continue to accord only very limited influence to the Commission and the EP, even though a wide set of policy competencies are shared between EU and national levels.
The Schengen Agreement was signed between France, Germany, and the Benelux countries in 1985 outside the EU legal framework and it was only formally incorporated into EU law with the Amsterdam Treaty. Schengen provides for the removal of border controls between the participating countries and the harmonization of visa, immigration, and asylum policies. During the following decades, many EU member states have joined the border regime (with the exception of Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania, and the UK), as well as four non-EU member states (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland).
The debate between supranationalism and intergovernmentalism mirrors the paradigmatic debate between ‘idealism’ and ‘realism’ in IR. Neofunctionalism drew on and elaborated the functionalist theories of international cooperation and organization at the core of IR idealism. They stipulated ways to overcome the balance of power behaviour and recurrent warfare that realists considered to be endemic features of international politics. The initial dominance of neofunctionalism in integration theory reflected the upswing of supranational economic integration in the Introduction to Part I 31 1950s.