By Tohru Nakashizuka, Yoosuke Matsumoto
The reports within the Ogawa woodland Reserve (OPR) have been initiated by way of a gaggle of plant ecologists and steadily extended right into a finished venture overlaying numerous facets of biology, soil technology, and silviculture. The venture used to be built-in as a part of the wooded area atmosphere group below the BIO-COSMOS software funded by means of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. because the coordinators of the wooded area environment staff, we're happy that studies of the long term reviews conducted within the OFR are being released during this first quantity on jap ecosystems within the Ecological experiences sequence. Scientists and researchers have made a variety of contributions to the sphere of wooded area ecology in the course of greater than 10 years of reports within the OFR. purposes should be mentioned for the good fortune of the venture: scientists from quite a few disciplines concen trated on a unmarried goal woodland surroundings, and the learn persevered over a rela tively long-term. it really is now well-known that ecological tactics comprise compli cated mechanisms supported by way of interactions between organisms and massive temporal adaptations. The researchers within the OFR undertaking have been stimulated via their curiosity within the background of ecosystems and the interactions of numerous creatures within the forest.
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Extra info for Diversity and Interaction in a Temperate Forest Community: Ogawa Forest Reserve of Japan
Current land-use map of the area in and around Ogawa Forest Reserve (OFR). The area within the broken line is the OFR (98 ha). The shaded and unshaded areas show oldgrowth and secondary forests, respectively. Circles indicate evidence of old charcoal kilns. The contour interval is 10 m Forest Vegetation and Human Impact 39 both in the past and at present, old-growth stands with the original species composition and stand structure were distributed in the valley bottoms and on adjacent hillsides, and secondary-growth stands were mainly distributed on the surrounding ridges.
Another deciduous oak, Q. acutissima, is also useful, although this has been planted since the area was used for charcoal-burning. W. Suzuki 38 Dwarf bamboos are the main components of the undergrowth, and have been used as fuel and farmyard manure. They were also used in the building of the charcoal kilns and as fuel in charcoal-burning. As a result, the undergrowth of secondary stands, which had been dominated by dwarf bamboos, changed to a poorer vegetation composed of shrub and herbaceous species which could compete against weeds.
There are seven abandoned charcoal kilns in the watershed of the OFR, and six kilns have been found in the Forest Reserve. These findings suggest that some part of the OFR had been subjected to coppice-system cutting for charcoal-burning before it was designated as a reserve. Even in the old-growth stands, the dominance of Quercus serrata suggests some human impact (see Chapter 6). A simulation trial using Markov models based on canopy-sapling associations predicted the elimination of Q. serrata, Castanea crenata, and Q.