Ecology and Development in the Third World (Routledge by Avijit Gupta

By Avijit Gupta

This finished moment version presents an updated creation to the character of ecological degradation in an international of dramatic environmental swap.

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A. McCann (eds), River Ecology and Man, New York, Academic Press, 1972 downstream of the dam, forcing the cultivators to be dependent on fertilizers. The lack of water and sediment reaching the Mediterranean via the lower Nile has resulted in coastal erosion in the delta and also saltwater incursion. The lack of nutrients reaching the Mediterranean has destroyed the rich sardine offshore fishery which is partially compensated by fishing in Lake Nasser. The spread of schistosomiasis in the irrigated areas and salinization of part of the irrigated land have been even more disastrous (Hammerton, 1972).

5 Development and changing air quality The constituents of air By air we refer to a mixture of gases that envelops the surface of our planet. Remarkably the composition of this mixture is nearly constant from the ground level to a height of 80 km. The two major constituents of air are nitrogen (78 per cent by volume) and oxygen (approximately 21 per cent). Argon and carbon dioxide are also present but together they constitute only about 1 per cent. 01 and 5 per cent. 01 per cent by volume. When some of these are present in sufficient quantity to affect the physical well-being of humans, animals, vegetation and materials, they are considered pollutants of air.

According to the survey, only 20 per cent of the rural community had access to potable water, a figure which rose to 75 per cent in the urban areas. These overall figures hid the huge disparities which were revealed when the data were broken down into smaller areas: figures ranged from 100 per cent in some urban settlements to less than 1 per cent in specific rural areas (Biswas, 1978). The total number of people without clean drinking water increased with time. By 1980, this number had reached about 2 billion; they were also without proper sanitation arrangements.

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