Ethnic Violence and the Societal Security Dilemma (Routledge by Paul Roe

By Paul Roe

Ethnic Violence and the Societal safeguard issue explores how the phenomenon of ethnic violence could be understood as a kind of safety problem via moving the point of interest of the idea that clear of its conventional difficulty with nation sovereignty to that of identification in its place. The e-book comprises case reviews on:* ethnic violence among Serbs and Croats within the Krajina sector of Croatia, August 1990* ethnic violence among Hungarian and Romanians within the Transylvania quarter of Romania, March 1990.

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Ethnic elites’ behaviour Kaufman also stresses that wars occur because there are aggressive actors that wish to start them. Referring to a more top–down strategy, Kaufman’s starting point in this respect is Stephen van Evera’s re-working of Jack Snyder’s ‘diversionary theory of war’ (that elites may adopt aggressive policies purely to stay in power). 14 That political elites manipulate and mobilise members of the ethnic group toward violence and war is sometimes referred to as ‘conflict entrepreneurship’.

Referring to a more top–down strategy, Kaufman’s starting point in this respect is Stephen van Evera’s re-working of Jack Snyder’s ‘diversionary theory of war’ (that elites may adopt aggressive policies purely to stay in power). 14 That political elites manipulate and mobilise members of the ethnic group toward violence and war is sometimes referred to as ‘conflict entrepreneurship’. V. P. Gagnon’s 1995 article, ‘Ethnic Nationalism and International Conflict’, is prominent in this respect. With a specific focus on those strategies employed by Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, Gagnon argues that: ‘The challenge for elites is .

However, and as Fearon himself points out, the two approaches can be differentiated. In the security dilemma, actors ‘have no fundamentally aggressive or revisionist desires’: The ‘ethnic’ security dilemma and the former Yugoslavia 29 By contrast, for the commitment problem I describe to operate, there must be some set of substantive issues over which the minority and majority have conflicting preferences, either in the present or in the future. 22 Although there are certain similarities between the commitment problem and the ‘regular’ and ‘loose’ security dilemma formulations, further exploration of them is not the main task in hand.

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