By Leonidas Donskis
Loyalty and betrayal are between key innovations of the ethic of nationalism. Marriage of country and tradition, which turns out the essence of the congruence among political energy constitution and collective id, frequently bargains an easy rationalization of loyalty and dissent. Loyalty is visible as once-and-for-all dedication of the person to his or her country, while betrayal is pointed out as a failure to dedicate him or herself to a standard reason or as a diversion from the item of political loyalty and cultural/linguistic constancy. For conservative or radical nationalists, even social and cultural critique of one’s humans and nation will be considered as treason, while for his or her liberal opposite numbers it's accurately what constitutes political expertise, civic advantage, and a unsleeping commitment to the folks and tradition. This booklet is the 1st try and supply a discursive map of Lithuanian liberal and conservative nationalism. examining the works and perspectives of dissenters and critics of society and tradition, we will be able to demonstrate a method of being of liberal nationalism as a social and cultural feedback. This quantity is of curiosity for highbrow historians, social theorists, scholars of East-Central ecu proposal, and somebody drawn to Baltic reviews and the recent participants of the european. "Dissent: act of betrayal, or loyalty? Leonidas Donskis' new amazing research is one constant, thorough and devoted attempt to supply a solution to that question." Zygmunt Bauman (from the Preface)
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Extra resources for Loyalty, Dissent, and Betrayal: Modern Lithuania and East-Central European Moral Imagination (On the Boundary of Two Worlds: Identity, Freedom, and Moral ... Freedom, & Moral Imagination in the Baltics)
The ways of looking at society and culture conceptualized and articulated by Kavolis obviously reflect his passionate striving for active participation in, and even symbolic correction of, social reality. This is borne out by Kavolis’s numerous texts dealing with Lithuanian history as well as with present culture, in which he explained where, how, and why his country failed to embrace the norms and values he so passionately advocated: the denial of any kind of collective oppressiveness and consensus gentium-type morality—as opposed to the principles of individual responsibility, reason and conscience; critical self-reflexivity of a society and its culture—against any sort of self-centeredness and self-righteousness; 34 Leonidas Donskis intellectual and moral sensibility towards the Other—against the sense of fatal innocence and victimization; morally committed individualism—as contrasted to individual and collective forms of anomie.
However, while Trumpa must be credited for many interesting insights, he failed to stress that because it was based on religious thinking the concept of culture wielded by inter-war Lithuanian philosophers could not be effectively applied either to modern, secularized—in both religious and ideological terms—society, or to multidimensional reality in general. Moreover, according to this concept, culture was understood as pure spirituality or as the conscious renunciation of social reality, and, thus, offered no way to process the complex, diverse, and multifaceted nature of human reality.
First of all, neither Anglo-American nor French social and political philosophy had any significant influence in inter-war Lithuania. 11 Loyalty, Dissent, and Betrayal 23 It was therefore not only the widespread influence of ideological discourse, but also the absence of an appropriate conceptual and explanatory framework that led to widespread misinterpretations and misconceptions of social reality. This is not to say, however, that theoretical fallacies may have resulted from the incongruity between, on the one hand, social reality and the ineffective tools for social analysis, and, on the other, the lack of an appropriate analytical language.