By Glyn Morrill
This booklet presents a cutting-edge creation to categorial grammar, a kind of formal grammar which analyzes expressions as services or based on a function-argument courting. The book's concentration is on linguistic, computational, and psycholinguistic points of logical categorial grammar, i.e. enriched Lambek Calculus. Glyn Morrill opens with the heritage and notation of Lambek Calculus and its software to syntax, semantics, and processing. Successive chapters expand the grammar to a few major syntactic and semantic houses of normal language. the ultimate half applies Morrill's account to a number of present matters in processing and parsing, thought of from either a mental and a computational viewpoint. The e-book deals a rigorous and considerate learn of 1 of the most traces of analysis within the formal and mathematical concept of grammar, and should be compatible for college kids of linguistics and cognitive technology from complicated undergraduate point upwards.
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Additional resources for Categorial Grammar: Logical Syntax, Semantics, and Processing
13. 1. There is the translation | · | given in Fig. 13 from the ﬁrst-order logic notation deﬁned in (15) into our higher-order logic. 7 Lexical semantics We will represent a reading of an expression of syntactic type A by a closed term of higher-order logic of semantic type T (A). 3 how a derivation of a sequent A1 , . . , An ⇒ A is associated with a pure lambda term of type T (A) with free variables of types T (A1 ), . . , T (An ): the derivational semantics. The lexicon will associate closed terms of higher-order logic with basic expressions, the lexical semantics.
2. Normalize the following lambda terms (Carpenter, 1996). a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. 3. Normalize the following lambda terms (Carpenter, 1996). a. (Îx(walk 1 (x, y)) a) b. (Îx(walk 2 (x, y)) a) c. , 1989) is that intuitionistic natural deduction and typed lambda calculus are isomorphic. This formulasas-types and proofs-as-programs correspondence exists at the following three levels: (7) intuitionistic natural deduction typed lambda calculus formulas: A→B A∧ B types: Ù 1 → Ù2 Ù1 &Ù2 proofs: E(limination of) → I(introduction of) → E(limination of) ∧ I(ntroduction of) ∧ terms: functional application functional abstraction projection ordered pair formation normalization: elimination of detours computation: lambda-reduction Overall, the laws of lambda-reduction are the same laws as the natural deduction proof normalizations of Prawitz (1965).
This same ﬁniteness also entails for Lambek categorial grammar the ﬁnite reading property (van Benthem, 1991): that any sequent only ever has at most a ﬁnite number of semantic readings, because of the ﬁniteness of the number of possible Cut-free proofs together with semantic Cut-elimination (Hendriks, 1993): that the Cut-elimination algorithm preserves semantic readings. The ﬁnite reading property is consistent with the observation that natural language only ever appears to be ﬁnitely ambiguous.