# Lecture Notes on Elementary Topology and Geometry by I.M. Singer

By I.M. Singer

Today, the typical undergraduate arithmetic significant reveals arithmetic seriously compartmentalized. After the calculus, he's taking a direction in research and a path in algebra. based upon his pursuits (or these of his department), he's taking classes in detailed issues. Ifhe is uncovered to topology, it is often uncomplicated aspect set topology; if he's uncovered to geom­ etry, it's always classical differential geometry. The intriguing revelations that there's a few cohesion in arithmetic, that fields overlap, that suggestions of 1 box have functions in one other, are denied the undergraduate. He needs to wait till he's good into graduate paintings to work out interconnections, possibly simply because past he does not be aware of sufficient. those notes are an try and get a divorce this compartmentalization, no less than in topology-geometry. What the coed has discovered in algebra and complicated calculus are used to turn out a few relatively deep effects bearing on geometry, topol­ ogy, and crew thought. (De Rham's theorem, the Gauss-Bonnet theorem for surfaces, the functorial relation of basic team to protecting house, and surfaces of continuous curvature as homogeneous areas are the main be aware­ worthwhile examples.) within the first chapters the naked necessities of user-friendly element set topology are set forth with a few trace ofthe subject's program to sensible research.

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Extra resources for Lecture Notes on Elementary Topology and Geometry

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Put 3 - x = {Z - x\ Z G 3} so that 3 - x -* 0 in X and 3 - x is a Cauchy filter in ( P , W). 7. (p) C P . Theorem. Let U be a topology on P Then (i) W is tolerant to Q-convergence if and only if + (ii) for x e U eU there exists p : D - R such that x + R(p) C U. 4. 8. For Z C X denote the convex hull of Z by convZ. HENSTOCK-KURZWEIL 52 INTEGRATION Definition. Let Wlc = W*LC(P,Q) = {convR(p);p: D - M+}. Let U1C be the set of U c P with the property if y G £/, then there exists W G 2H/,c s u c n * n a t 2/ + W U.

Let now j,A: e N and let A = {(t, J)} G S(I,I,6(j,-) partition of 7. be a 46 HENSTOCK-KURZWEIL INTEGRATION Put A 2 = {(*, J) 6 A; t e M*}, Ai = A \ A 2 , 7i(fc) = *i(fc)(-0 for A;€ N. Then (cf. /Il < J Z l*i(fc)(J) - 9i(k)(t)\J\\ < A £ A \FHk)(J) - 9m(t)\J\\ + ^ \FiW(J)\ < A, < 2~ J '- 2 + 2 _ J ' - 2 + ^ I ' l < 2~j~2 + 2~J~2 + 2~j~1 < 2~j. 12 is complete. - ^ F. The proof of □ The next theorem shows that ^-convergence and <5-convergence are equivalent from the point of view of topology. 13 Definition.

11 Lemma. Let ■d, ( : I —> [0,1], iet £ be measurable and ((t) > fl(t) almost everywhere. e. Proof. Put M = {t G 7;C(0 < #(<)}• By assumption M G A/". For a,(3eR+ put if = H(a, (3) = {te /; C(0 < a, fo{t) > a + 20}. ii) \{C(t) < Mt)}\ > o, then there exist a,0 such that \H\ > 0. 77 is measurable. Let t e H D densH. ). Since i G if, we have £ G cless£ so that £ G clessi? D densii. 7 implies that there exists z G E n i i \ M. (z) because z G I\M. 11) cannot hold and the proof is complete. □ 2. 12.

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