Masonry Walls: Specification and Design by KENNETH THOMAS

By KENNETH THOMAS

Masonry partitions: Specification and layout ПРОФЕССИИ И РЕМЕСЛА,ДИЗАЙН, ДОМ и СЕМЬЯ Автор: okay. ThomasИздательство: Butterworth-Heinemann LtdДата публикации: 1996-02ISBN (eng): 0750624655ISBN (рус):Язык: EnglishКоличество страниц:317Формат:PDFРазмер: 11,6 MbDetails signs and factors of defects * Of specified curiosity to those investigating construction disasters and professional witnesses * a lot wanted entire reference This publication presents a transparent, well-illustrated consultant to the specification and layout of recent masonry and covers brickwork, blockwork and stone masonry types of building. It additionally describes and analyses attainable defects and offers suggestion on potent remedial works.0

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6 Density and Density Distribution There are various different concepts for determining density in the field of pulverized materials, especially fly ashes, as is apparent from /J 9/ and ASTM Designation E 12–70 (Reapproved 1981). ASTM Standard C 188–84 deals with specific gravity determination in cements. In cement applications, water must be replaced by an organic liquid. Since fly ashes contain some water-soluble compounds, the use of non-aqueous solvents for determining specific gravity is recommended.

The following factors were noted: — Satisfactory high strengths can be achieved with concrete incorporating a high percentage of fly ash and super-plasticizers. — The mechanical properties of the water-reduced, super-plasticized fly-ash concrete were superior to those of the reference fly-ash concrete. — The workabability may impose a limitation on use for cast-in-place construction, due to a gluey texture at slumps between 65 and 75 mm. — Superplasticizers N and L both increased the setting time markedly, but it is not possible to determine from the data whether fly ash also influenced settime.

Ogawa et al. 0 for the Ca/Si ratio from their scanning electron microscopic/energy dispersive spectroscopic measurements. Presumably their measured value was high, because the solid material between the particles contained both the C-S-H and Ca (OH)2, whereas Mohan and Taylor were able to separate the particles more readily after grinding their samples to a fine powder. Close to the fly-ash particles, Ogawa et al. 5 for the Ca/Si ratio, in better agreement with Mohan and Taylor. 2 Effect of Fly Ash on C3A and C4AF Hydration Plowman and Cabrera /P 16, C 27, C 8/ found fly ash a more effective retarder of C3A and C4AF hydration than an equivalent quantity of gypsum.

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